As technologists consider scaling microelectronic devices below the 100nm node, it is clear that many new materials will be introduced into the fab line. Determining the best materials and the best processing techniques are extremely challenging tasks. Much of this book, first published in 2002, attempts to find a replacement for silicon dioxide. Hafnium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, and their silicates and aluminates are the subjects of intense scrutiny, but other materials are being considered as well. Obtaining a suitable large capacitance, while simultaneously obtaining low charge density in the film, and finding a material that has adequate thermal stability is proving difficult. Real-time electron microscopy of metal-silicon reactions is providing valuable new insights. Topics include: high-K materials; processing of high-K gate dielectrics; gate stack and silicide issues in Si processing; electrical performance of novel gate dielectrics; novel gate structures; novel silicide processes; and shallow junctions and integration issues in FEOL.
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