This book provides a solid look into the technical status of the semiconductor industry. The evolution of transistors to miniaturization beyond the capabilities of conventional IC processing has created a need for materials research in many levels of the integrated circuit fabrication, including new materials in substrates, gates and interconnects. The transition from silicon-based chemistries to alternative materials shows the unique properties of silicon that have permitted the dramatic progress in semiconductor device advancement in the past. New materials and techniques to process and evaluate materials will be required to extend device advancements, with the constraint of commercial viability. This book brings together the research and development to provide a view of the manufacturing industry. Topics include: silicon materials and processing; gate dielectrics and devices; high-k dielectrics; dielectric characterization; gate oxides and interfaces; metals and interfaces; characterization using surface analysis techniques; oxides and silicides; metals and modeling; low-k dielectrics and reliability.
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