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Leading-edge advanced metallization schemes, as applied to VLSI interconnects, include the introduction of novel metals systems and novel dielectric materials. Technological advances highlighted at AMC 2001 include the latest developments in integrating copper metallization with low-dielectric constant materials, and evaluations of the reliability of such interconnects. Recently, in both industry and academia there has been increased interest in basic research as applied to the field of vertical integration. Since the problems that affect vertical integration are similar to those of VLSI interconnects, it is natural to include the topic here. In fact, it is anticipated that cross fertilization between the fields of VLSI metallization and vertical interconnect will yield a viable technical solution to the problem of multichip integration. This book offers a comprehensive look at the current state of the art of VLSI interconnects. Topics include: process integration; vertical integration and advanced packaging; copper metallization; low-K dielectrics technology; modeling; reliability; barriers; atomic-layer epitaxy and other technologies; and CMP and automation.
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