A primary driver of progress in nanoscience and technology is the continuing advances in the ability to measure structure, and particularly properties, at spatially localized scales. From the point of view of characterization, it is worth mentioning advances in the interpretation of processes in semiconductors, the ability to observe and manipulate metal, carbon and silicon nanowires and nanodots, and studies in molecular self-assembly. The papers in this book fall into two categories - those addressing classes of characterization techniques that emphasize how the combination of theoretical, experimental, and instrumentational developments lead to new capabilities in nanoscale characterization, and those focused on the use of various spatially localized approaches on a single phenomenon or materials issue. Topics include: characterization with electron optics; novel measurements of nanoscale properties; size-dependent behavior of nanoparticles; biological systems at the nanoscale; processing and properties of nanowires and heterostructures; and local phenomena in materials and microstructures.
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