Irradiation with energetic ion beams often leads to structures with nanometer-sized dimensions. Ion beams can be used to fabricate metallic or semiconducting nanocrystals in optical or electronic host materials or to pattern magnetic or superconducting materials. The properties of nanostructured materials formed by various types of energetic beams can be unique, and as a result, such materials provide an opportunity to investigate physical processes and suggest potential applications. This 2003 book focuses on aspects of nanostructuring with energetic ion beams including nanocrystal synthesis by ion implantation, nanostructure formation induced by radiation effects, ion irradiation through lithographic masks, ion-beam lithography, and focused ion beams. A highlight is a presentation demonstrating the remarkable lithographic abilities of MeV proton beams to 'machine' solid materials on a scale of nanometers. Because of the long range of the proton beam, features with uncommonly high aspect ratios can be obtained. This is the first known instrument of its kind in the world and the first results are extremely promising.
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