More and more researchers are recognizing the importance of patterning materials into well-defined structures and their immediate impacts to many areas that include physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Compared to traditional lithographic techniques, nontraditional approaches (e.g., self-assembly, soft lithography, embossing, dip-pen lithography, scanning probe lithography and lase- induced patterning) provide avenues to explore new scientific phenomena, as well as to realize new devices in microelectronics, photonics, sensors, MEMS, and lab-on-chip systems with lower cost, higher throughput, and larger quantities. The ability to directly pattern materials in three dimensions (e.g., self-assembly, two-photon absorption and interference lithography) with tailored shape, size, and chemistry provides unparalleled control over material structures and properties. In this book, a wide range of researchers exchange views, learn about the latest advancement in materials science and engineering and develop new concepts and research directions in material patterning. Topics include: synthesis and assembly of nanostructures; soft lithography; SPM-based nanolithography; self-assembly; 3D patterning and other methods.
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