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This book, first published in 2005, brings together leading modelers and experimentalists to discuss the plethora of process and reliability issues associated with depositing, characterizing and integrating novel and existing barriers, metals and ultralow-k dielectrics into reliable high-performance interconnects that can be robustly packaged. Section I focuses on low-k dielectric integration. Manuscripts highlight the importance of interface integrity and adhesion, the issue of process-induced dielectric damage and the need for pore sealing methods for low-k films. Channel cracking is addressed by several contributions. Cu metallization and barrier challenges are discussed in a section on metallization. Mechanical stress is highlighted in a reliability section. Contributions here provide a fundamental understanding of the issues of stress and stress relaxation in Cu films and lines encapsulated in low-k dielectrics. Presentations on electromigration, leakage and time-dependent dielectric breakdown, as well as thermal and mechanical fatigue, are also featured.
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