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An emerging technology or device architecture called 3-D IC integration is based on the system performance gains that can be achieved by stacking and vertically interconnecting distinct device chips. The 3-D concept of replacing long 2-D interconnects with shorter vertical (3-D) interconnects has the potential to alleviate the well-known interconnect (RC) delay problem facing the semiconductor industry. Additional benefits of the 3-D concept for the IC maker include reduced die size and the ability to use distinct technologies (analog, logic, RF, etc…) on separate vertically interconnected layers. The 3-D concept, therefore, allows the integration of otherwise incompatible technologies, and offers significant advantages in performance, functionality, and form factor. Topics in this book include: fabrication of 3-D ICs; modeling, simulation and scaling of 3-D integrated devices; applications of 3-D integration; through wafer interconnects for 3-D packaging and interposer applications; bonding technology for 3-D integration; and enabling processes for 3-D integration.
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