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Plants and Mechanical Motion: A Synthetic Approach to Nastic Materials and Structures

  • ID: 2148953
  • Book
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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Beginning with the basics of plant motion, this book explains technologies for translating plant-like movements to new adaptive materials, with explicit reference to helicopter and aeronautic applications. The first part of the book focuses on energy transport strategies using transport protein pressurization, ion intercalation, electrosmosis/electromigration and closed-cell gas generation.

Part two concentrates on the mechanics and applications of fluidic muscle-like materials bioinspired by fibrillar plant tissue for use in soft robotics, biomimetic robots, and morphing aeronautical structures. Each chapter covers analytical models, test results, design and troubleshooting. The information in the text is meant to assist materials scientists and engineers to initiate research and design in the field of nastic materials and structures.

- Soft actuator design, soft robotics, novel adaptive materials
- Applications to helicopter blades, aircraft wings, ship hulls, solar collectors
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1. Plants and Mechanical Motion—A Synthetic Approach to Nastic Materials and Structures
Janet M. Sater, John A. Main and Robert McHenry
- Introduction
- Plant Nastic Responses as Models for Mechanical/Adaptive Structures
- Synthetic Nastic Materials
- Fluidic Muscle Actuators
- References

2. Controllable Microhydraulic Actuation Using Biological Ion Transporters
D.J. Leo, J. Cuppoletti, S. Narang and V.B. Sundaresan
- Introduction
- Material Selection—Membrane Assembly
- pH Gradient Driven Transport
- Actuator Prototypes
- Final Discussion
- Conclusion
- References

3. Electrochemical Actuators Utilizing Solid-State Intercalation Compounds and Their Applications to Smart Structures
Y.-M. Chiang, S.R. Hall, T.E. Chin, F. Tubilla, G. Baetz, D. Sapnaras and K.Y. Song
- Introduction
- Materials Characterization and Prototype Actuators
- Applications to Smart Structures: Design and Implementation
- Conclusions and Future Prospects
- References

4. Electroosmotically-Actuated Hydrogel for Nastic Actuation
Reh-Lin Chen, Chuan-Hua Chen, Bing-Chung Chen and Chung-Lung Chen
- Introduction
- Electroosmotically-Actuated Hydrogel
- Nastic Actuation
- Technical Issues
- Summary
- References

5. Electrochemical/Combustion Actuation to Achieve Helicopter Blade Twist
G.F. Hawkins, P.A. Hess, T.J. Curtiss, M.J. O'Brien, T.A. Moore, E.W. Fournier, B.B. Brady, S.D. Patty, M.A. Eby and J. Thomas
- Introduction
- Active Twist Airfoil System
- Gas Generation for Actuation
- Actuator Testing and Results
- Prototype Blade Twist Results
- Conclusions and Future Applications
- References

6. Learning from Plants—Recent Advances in Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite based Multi-Cellular and Multi-Functional Adaptive Structures
Suyi Li and K.W. Wang
- Introduction to F2MC and Its Functionality
- Dynamic Characteristics of Multi-cellular F2MC Structure
- Development of Multi-functional F2MC Cellular Structure
- Conclusion
- Acknowledgements
- Nomenclature
- References

7. Soft Robotic Manipulators: Design, Analysis, and Control
Deepak Trivedi and Christopher D. Rahn
- Soft Robot Materials
- The OctArm
- Future of Soft Robots
- Conclusions
- References

8. Plant-Inspired Flexible Matrix Composite Actuators for Biomimetic Underwater Propulsion Systems
Michael Philen
- Introduction
- Objectives
- FMC Actuators for Development of an Artificial Fish
- Performance of Alligator Swimming Using FMC Actuators
- Conclusions
- Acknowledgements
- References

9. Bio-Inspired Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation of Trailing Edge Flaps in a Helicopter Rotor
Benjamin K.S. Woods, Curt S. Kothera and Norman M. Wereley
- Introduction
- PAM Actuator Development
- Trailing Edge Flap Actuation System Design
- Wind Tunnel Test Article Design
- Wind Tunnel Results and Discussion
- PAM-TEF System Whirl Testing
- Conclusions
- Acknowledgement
- References

10. Final Discussion and Conclusions
Janet M. Sater, John A. Main and Robert McHenry
- Final Discussion
- Summary and Concluding Remarks
- References

Index
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Recently an excellent book entitled Plants and Mechanical Motion-A Synthetic Approach to Nastic Materials and Structures, edited by Dr. Norman M. Wereley, from University of Maryland and Dr. Janet M. Sater, from Institute for Defense Analysis, has been published. The book is a presentation of technologies for translating plant-like movements to new adaptive materials, with explicit reference to helicopter and aeronautic applications. It provides both the practicing engineer and researcher with ample scientific and engineering information to enable application of the research results presented herein and/or the initiation of new efforts in nastic materials and structures. There are 10 chapters in the book.

Chapter one introduces the plant motion and mechanism studies from the earliest history up until the present time, discussing relevant features of plants with respect to their counterparts in man-made mechanical systems.

Chapter 2-5 highlight four different approaches for making synthetic nastic materials: transport protein pressurization, ion intercalation, combined electroosmosis and electromigration, and closed cell gas generation. Chapters on each of the four highlighted approaches provided relevant details including fundamental science, analytical models, test results, technical issues, devised, and potential applications etc..

Chapters 6-9 focus on the mechanics and applications of fluidic muscle actuators reminiscent of the fibrillar wall structures that plants use to achieve motion. In Chapter 10, a discussion of biomimetic design is presented, and suggestions for future activities are provided.

The book can be expected to profoundly impact research and development for nastic materials and structures. The book presents a timely and focused review of research efforts encompassing work from the most pertinent derivatives of nastic materials and structures that include energy transport strategies and the mechanics and applications of fluidic muscle-like materials bioinspired by fibrillar plant tissue. This book will ultimately serve a number of disciplines and promises to focus biological structures like plants for new avenues of biology, materials and mechanics.

Reviewed by: Jinsong Leng, Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Smart and Nano Materials
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