The structure of the book is designed to take the reader from large instruments to small instruments, moving from the more established benchtop equipment to the latest miniature devices. The book is divided into five sections:
- Section I is a short introduction to analytical instrumentation and the analytical process in general.
- Section II covers benchtop instruments available to analytical scientists with chapters on each of the following – spectroscopic methods, separation and hyphenated techniques, imaging instrumentation, electrochemical methods and thermal and diffraction techniques.
- Section III moves into the realm of smaller instruments with a discussion of why there is a drive to make devices more portable and their use in laboratory, medical and environmental applications.
- Section IV examines process analytical technology, a growth are a is science. Following discussion of in–process sampling and in–process analysis, a number of examples of instruments that are being used for process analytics are presented.
- Section V tackles the most recent rend in analytical instrumentation, miniaturization, and discusses developments in the field of chip–based and other tiny devices.
This text is pitched at scientists in both academia and industry who would like to know more about available analytical instruments and their capabilities. At university level, the book is relevant to third and final year undergraduate students in the sciences, especially analytical sciences, as well as postgraduates studying science courses where analysis and characterisation of compounds is required. In industry–based laboratories, it will assist researchers working in the pharmaceutical, environmental, food & beverages and healthcare industries where analytical instrumentation is routinely used.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
1.1 The Analytical Scientist.
1.2 The Analytical Process.
1.3 Analytical Instrumentation.
1.4 Choosing the Right Instrument.
SECTION I. LABORATORY ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION.
2. Spectrometric Instruments.
2.1 Molecular Spectrometry.
2.1.1 Ultraviolet, Visible and Near Infrared.
2.1.2 Infrared and Raman.
2.1.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
2.1.5 Mass Spectrometry.
2.2 Atomic Spectrometry.
2.2.1 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry.
2.2.2 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.
2.2.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.
3. Separation Instruments.
3.1 Gas Chromatography.
3.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
3.3 Ion Chromatography.
3.4 Capillary Electrophoresis.
3.5 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.
3.6 Hyphenated (Hybrid) Instruments.
3.6.1 Hyphenated Gas Chromatography Techniques.
3.6.2 Hyphenated Liquid Chromatography Techniques.
3.6.3 Hyphenated Capillary Electrophoresis Techniques.
4. Imaging Instruments.
4.1 Optical Microscopy.
4.2 Confocal Microscopy.
4.3 Electron Microscopy.
4.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy.
4.3.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy.
4.4 Scanning Probe Microscopy.
4.4.1 Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy.
4.4.2 Atomic Force Microscopy.
4.5 Spectral Imaging.
5. Electrochemical Instruments.
6. Other Instruments.
6.1 Thermogravimetric Analysis.
6.2 Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
6.3 X–ray Diffraction.
SECTION II. PORTABLE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION.
The Drive for Portable Analytical Instruments.
7. Portable Instruments in the Laboratory.
7.1 Spectrometric Instruments.
7.2 Separation Instruments.
7.3 Imaging Instruments.
7.4 Electrochemical Instruments.
8. Portable Instruments in Various Applications.
8.1 Medical Applications.
8.1.1 Point–of–Care Technology.
8.1.2 Blood Glucose Testing.
8.1.3 Blood Coagulation Monitoring.
8.1.4 Other Point–of–Care Devices.
8.2 Environmental Applications.
8.2.1 Field Devices.
8.2.2 Water Quality Monitoring.
8.2.3 Soil and Sediment Testing.
8.2.4 Air Monitoring.
8.3 Security and Defence Applications.
8.4 Other Applications.
SECTION III. PROCESS ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION.
The Drive for Process Analysis.
9. Process Analytical Instrumentation in Industry.
9.1 In–Process Sampling.
9.2 In–Process Analysis.
9.2.1 Flow Injection Analysis.
9.2.2 Spectroscopic Analysis.
9.2.3 Separation Analysis.
9.2.4 Imaging Analysis.
9.2.5 Electrochemical Analysis.
9.3 Laboratory Integrated Management Systems.
SECTION IV. MINIATURISED ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION.
The Drive for Miniaturised Analytical Instrumentation.
10. Chip–based Instrumentation.
10.1 The Development of Chip–based Analytical Devices.
10.2 Challenges for Chip–based Analytical Devices.
10.2.1 Moving and Mixing Fluids on a Chip.
10.2.2 Fitting Components onto a Chip.
10.2.3 Sampling and Detection Strategies.
10.2.4 Understanding Processes on the Microscale.
10.3 Chip–based Analytical Instruments.
10.3.1 Lab–on–valve Flow Injection Analysis.
10.3.2 Spectroscopic Devices.
10.3.3 Separation Devices.
10.3.4 Imaging Devices.
10.3.5 Electrochemical Devices.
10.3.6 Other Chip–based Devices.