One particularly important area has been the functionalization of organic conducting polymers. Organic conducting polymers that contain covalently bound, charged functional groups that in turn have an impact on the properties of the polymer are referred to as self–doped conducting polymers. In particular, the presence of these groups can alter the stability of the doped structure as well as influence the nature of charge compensation and ion movement during redox switching. Since the discovery of this class of conducting polymer there has been a growing recognition of its importance and potential impact on a wide range of technologies ranging from electrochromic devices to batteries. As a result, there are an increasing number of researchers and companies focused on the creation and implementation of this type of conducting polymer.
The purpose of this book is to cover the rapidly developing area of self–doped conducting polymers, with the goal of describing the wide range of approaches that have been developed to synthesize, characterize and utilize them. Our intent is to provide an up–to–date, detailed overview of developments in the field and in turn provide researchers and students from many disciplines with a useful reference book. Aimed at sectors where conducting polymers are used, including the rapidly growing area of organic light–emitting diodes, the book will be invaluable to researchers in academic, government and industrial laboratories worldwide.
1.1 Conducting Polymers.
1.2 What Are Self–doped Conducting Polymers?
1.3 Types of Self–doped Polymers.
1.4 Doping Mechanism in Self–doped Polymers.
1.5 Effect of Substituents on Properties of Polymer.
1.6 Applications of Self–doped Polymers.
2. Self–doped Derivatives of Polyaniline.
2.1 Chemical Synthesis of Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.
2.2 Electrochemical Synthesis of Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.
2.3 Enzymatic Synthesis of Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.
2.4 Properties of Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.
2.5 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxyl Acid Derivatives.
2.6 Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphonic Acid Derivatives.
2.7 Self–doped Polyaniline Nanostructures.
3. Boronic acid Substituted Self–doped Polyaniline.
3.3 Properties of Self–doped PABA.
3.4 Self–Cross–Linked Self–doped Polyaniline.
4. Self–doped Polythiophenes.
4.1 Sulfonic Acid Derivatives.
4.2 Carboxylate Derivatives.
4.3 Phosphanate Derivatives.
5. Miscellaneous Self–doped Polymers.
5.1 Self–doped Sulfonated Polypyrrole.
5.2 Carboxyl Acid Derivative.
5.3 Self–doped Poly(3,6–carbaz–9–yl)propanesulfonate.
5.4 Self–doped Poly(p–phenylenes).
5.6 Self–doped Poly(indole–5–carboxylic acid).
5.7 Self–doped Ionically Conducting Polymers.