Focusing on the dynamic modeling and control of interdependent communications and electric energy systems, micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS), and the interdisciplinary education component of the EPNES (Electric Power Networks Efficiency and Security) initiative, Operation and Control of Electric Energy Processing Systems provides a working knowledge of, as well as cutting–edge developments in, electric power systems theory and applications.
The book begins with an introduction to the EPNES initiative, and then investigates several dynamical models in fault tolerant operation and control of energy processing systems. Intelligent power routers for distributed coordination of electric energy processing networks are developed. Next, the book addresses the design of power circuit breakers, using an array of small MEMS switches together with diodes for faster operation and smaller equipment size aimed at reducing the vulnerability of a power system to faults.
A GIS–based market simulation studies for power systems education is then developed. Finally, the book employs a social–sciences approach to help understand the development and use of distributed generation technologies small–scale generators that produce power near their loads in the electric power system.
Operation and Control of Electric Energy Processing Systems can be used both as a book for teaching graduate courses and as a handbook that provides state–of–the–art knowledge to engineers and researchers working worldwide in interdisciplinary areas such as control, power systems, economics, environment, and social sciences. It will also appeal to policy makers as well as executives and engineers of electric utilities.
1 A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (James Momoh).
1.2 Power System Challenges.
1.2.1 The Power System Modeling and Computational Challenge.
1.2.2 Modeling and Computational Techniques.
1.2.3 New Interdisciplinary Curriculum for the Electric Power Network.
1.3 Solution of the EPNES Architecture.
1.3.1 Modular Description of the EPNES Architecture.
1.3.2 Some Expectations of Studies Using EPNES Benchmark Test Beds.
1.4 Test Beds for EPNES.
1.4.1 Power System Model for the Navy.
1.4.2 Civil Test Bed 179–Bus WSCC Benchmark Power System.
1.5 Examples of Funded Research Work in Response to the EPNES Solicitation.
1.5.1 Funded Research by Topical Areas/Groups under the EPNES Award.
1.5.2 EPNES Award Distribution.
1.6 Future Directions of EPNES.
2 DYNAMICAL MODELS IN FAULT–TOLERANT OPERATION AND CONTROL OF ENERGY PROCESSING SYSTEMS (Christoforos N. Hadjicostis, Hugo Rodríguez Cortés, Aleksandar M. Stankovic).
2.2 Model–Based Fault Detection.
2.2.1 Fault Detection via Analytic Redundancy.
2.2.2 Failure Detection Filters.
2.3 Detuning Detection and Accommodation on IFOC–Driven Induction Motors.
2.3.1 Detuned Operation of Current–Fed Indirect Field–Oriented Controlled Induction Motors.
2.3.2 Detection of the Detuned Operation.
2.3.3 Estimation of the Magnetizing Flux.
2.3.4 Accommodation of the Detuning Operation.
2.4 Broken Rotor Bar Detection on IFOC–Driven Induction Motors.
2.4.1 Squirrel Cage Induction Motor Model with Broken Rotor Bars.
2.4.2 Broken Rotor Bar Detection.
2.5 Fault Detection on Power Systems.
2.5.1 The Model.
2.5.2 Class of Events.
2.5.3 The Navy Electric Ship Example.
2.5.4 Fault Detection Scheme.
2.5.5 Numerical Simulations.
3 INTELLIGENT POWER ROUTERS: DISTRIBUTED COORDINATION FOR ELECTRIC ENERGY PROCESSING NETWORKS (Agust n A. Irizarry–Rivera, Manuel Rodr guez–Mart nez, Bienvenido Velez, Miguel Velez–Reyes, Alberto R. Ramirez–Orquin, Efra n O Neill–Carrillo, Jose R. Cedeno).
3.2 Overview of the Intelligent Power Router Concept.
3.3 IPR Architecture and Software Module.
3.4 IPR Communication Protocols.
3.4.1 State of the Art.
3.4.2 Restoration of Electrical Energy Networks with IPRs.
3.4.3 Mathematical Formulation.
3.4.4 IPR Network Architecture.
3.4.5 Islanding–Zone Approach via IPR.
3.4.6 Negotiation in Two Phases.
3.4.7 Experimental Results.
3.5 Risk Assessment of a System Operating with IPR.
3.5.1 IPR Components.
3.6 Distributed Control Models.
3.6.1 Distributed Control of Electronic Power Distribution Systems.
3.6.2 Integrated Power System in Ship Architecture.
3.6.3 DC Zonal Electric Distribution System.
3.6.4 Implementation of the Reconfiguration Logic.
3.8 Economics Issues of the Intelligent Power Router Service.
3.8.1 The Standard Market Design (SMD) Environment.
3.8.2 The Ancillary Service (A/S) Context.
3.8.3 Reliability Aspects of Ancillary Services.
3.8.4 The IPR Technical/Social/Economical Potential for Optimality.
3.8.5 Proposed Definition for the Intelligent Power Router Ancillary Service.
4 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER USING MICROMECHANICAL SWITCHES (George G. Karady, Gerald T. Heydt, Esma Gel, Norma Hubele).
4.2 Overview of Technology.
4.2.1 Medium Voltage Circuit Breaker.
4.2.2 Micro–Electro–Mechanical Switches (MEMS).
4.3 The Concept of a MEMS–Based Circuit Breaker.
4.3.1 Circuit Description.
4.3.2 Operational Principle.
4.3.3 Current Interruption.
4.3.4 Switch Closing.
4.4 Investigation of Switching Array Operation.
4.4.1 Model Development.
4.4.2 Analysis of Current Interruption and Load Energization.
4.4.3 Effect of Delayed Opening of Switches.
4.4.4 A Block of Switch Fails to Open.
4.4.5 Effect of Delayed Closing of Switches.
4.4.6 One Set of Switches Fails to Close.
4.4.7 Summary of Simulation Results.
4.5 Reliability Analyses.
4.5.1 Approximations to Estimate Reliability.
4.5.2 Computational Results.
4.6 Proof of Principle Experiment.
4.6.1 Circuit Breaker Construction.
4.6.2 Control Circuit.
4.7 Circuit Breaker Design.
5 GIS–BASED SIMULATION STUDIES FOR POWER SYSTEMS EDUCATION (Ralph D. Badinelli, Virgilio Centeno, Boonyarit Intiyot).
5.1.1 Case Studies.
5.1.2 Generic Decision Model Structure.
5.1.3 Simulation Modeling.
5.2 Concepts for Modeling Power System Management and Control.
5.2.1 Large–Scale Optimization and Hierarchical Planning.
5.2.2 Sequential Decision Processes and Adaptation.
5.2.3 Stochastic Decisions and Risk Modeling.
5.2.4 Group Decision Making and Markets.
5.2.5 Power System Simulation Objects.
5.3 Grid Operation Models and Methods.
5.3.1 Randomized Load Simulator.
5.3.2 Market Maker.
5.3.3 The Commitment Planner.
6 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND MOMENTUM CHANGE IN THE AMERICAN ELECTRIC UTILITY SYSTEM: A SOCIAL–SCIENCE SYSTEMS APPROACH (Richard F. Hirsh, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Ralph D. Badinelli).
6.2 Overview of Concepts.
6.2.1 Using the Systems Approach to Understand Change in the Utility System.
6.2.2 Origins and Growth of Momentum in the Electric Utility System.
6.2.3 Politics and System Momentum Change.
6.3 Application of Principles.
6.3.1 The Possibility of Distributed Generation and New Momentum.
6.3.2 Impediments to Decentralized Electricity Generation.
6.4 Practical Consequences: Distributed Generation as a Business Enterprise.
6.5 Aggregated Dispatch as a Means to Stimulate Economic Momentum with DG.