Search and navigation technologies are central to the smooth operation of the Web, and have changed the way we seek out and interact with information. Understanding the computational basis of these technologies and the models underlying them is of paramount importance to both computing students and practitioners.
This Second Edition contains up–to–date, unrivalled coverage, bridging the gap between technically based and sociologically oriented Web books. It demystifies the tools that we use when interacting with the Web, as well as models different aspects of the Web that can help us understand how it is evolving and how it is being, and can be, effectively used.
The first part of the book covers the historical background of hypertext, the Web, and search engines and introduces the problems of search and navigation, discussing the potential of machine learning to improve search and navigation tools and proposing Markov chains as a model for user navigation. The second part explains the architectural and technical aspects of search engines. Described here are the search engine wars, the architecture of a search engine and details of how the Web is crawled, a search engine′s ranking algorithm, and different ways of evaluating search engines. Then, different types of search engines are explored, including Web directories, search engine advertising, metasearch engines, personalization of search, question–answering engines, image search, and special purpose engines. The final part concentrates on Web navigation, the mobile Web, and social network technologies in the context of search and navigation. Discussed are a range of navigation tools and metrics; Web data mining and visualization of Web navigation; the issues present in real–world navigation; the delivery of mobile Web services and the problems of search and navigation in a mobile context; peer–to–peer networks; the technology of collaborative filtering; Weblogs as a medium for personal journalism; social tagging and bookmarking; opinion mining; Web 2.0; and collective intelligence.
Each chapter begins with objectives and concludes with a summary and several exercises. Many real–world technology examples are provided throughout, including social networking, data mining, and nontraditional search engines. This book is intended as an undergraduate introductory text on search and navigation technologies. It is also ideal for IT professionals who wish to understand how these technologies work and what the future holds.
LIST OF FIGURES.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION.
1.1 Brief Summary of Chapters.
1.2 Brief History of Hypertext and the Web.
1.3 Brief History of Search Engines.
CHAPTER 2 THE WEB AND THE PROBLEM OF SEARCH.
2.1 Some Statistics.
2.2 Tabular Data Versus Web Data.
2.3 Structure of the Web.
2.4 Information Seeking on the Web.
2.5 Informational, Navigational, and Transactional Queries.
2.6 Comparing Web Search to Traditional Information Retrieval.
2.7 Local Site Search Versus Global Web Search.
2.8 Difference Between Search and Navigation.
CHAPTER 3 THE PROBLEM OF WEB NAVIGATION.
3.1 Getting Lost in Hyperspace and the Navigation Problem.
3.2 How Can the Machine Assist in User Search and Navigation.
3.3 Trails Should be First Class Objects.
3.4 Enter Markov Chains and Two Interpretations of Its Probabilities.
3.5 Conflict Between Web Site Owner and Visitor.
3.6 Conflict Between Semantics of Web Site and the Business Model.
CHAPTER 4 SEARCHING THE WEB.
4.1 Mechanics of a Typical Search.
4.2 Search Engines as Information Gatekeepers of the Web.
4.3 Search Engine Wars, is the Dust Settling?
4.4 Statistics from Studies of Search Engine Query Logs.
4.5 Architecture of a Search Engine.
4.6 Crawling the Web.
4.7 What Does it Take to Deliver a Global Search Service?
CHAPTER 5 HOW DOES A SEARCH ENGINE WORK.
5.1 Content Relevance.
5.2 Link–Based Metrics.
5.3 Popularity–Based Metrics.
5.4 Evaluating Search Engines.
CHAPTER 6 DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEARCH ENGINES.
6.1 Directories and Categorization of Web Content.
6.2 Search Engine Advertising.
6.5 Question Answering (Q&A) on the Web.
6.6 Image Search.
6.7 Special Purpose Search Engines.
CHAPTER 7 NAVIGATING THE WEB.
7.1 Frustration in Web Browsing and Navigation.
7.2 Navigation Tools.
7.3 Navigational Metrics.
7.4 Web Data Mining.
7.5 The Best Trail Algorithm.
7.6 Visualization that Aids Navigation.
7.7 Navigation in Virtual and Physical Spaces.
CHAPTER 8 THE MOBILE WEB.
8.1 The Paradigm of Mobile Computing.
8.2 Mobile Web Services.
8.3 Mobile Device Interfaces.
8.4 The Navigation Problem in Mobile Portals.
8.5 Mobile Search.
CHAPTER 9 SOCIAL NETWORKS.
9.1 What is a Social Network?
9.2 Social Network Analysis.
9.3 Peer–to–Peer Networks.
9.4 Collaborative Filtering.
9.5 Weblogs (Blogs).
9.6 Power–Law Distributions in the Web.
9.7 Searching in Social Networks.
9.8 Social Tagging and Bookmarking.
9.9 Opinion Mining.
9.10 Web 2.0 and Collective Intelligence.
CHAPTER 10 THE FUTURE OF WEB SEARCH AND NAVIGATION.