Mobile Robots. Navigation, Control and Remote Sensing

  • ID: 2170994
  • Book
  • 324 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A unique, accessible guide on mobile robot applications

The use of mobile robots to sense objects of interest plays a vital role in our society, from its value in military maneuvers to the exploration of natural resources to search and rescue operations. Written by an expert in the field, this book is the only resource to explain all the major areas of mobile robot applications control, navigation, and remote sensing which are essential to not only detecting desired objects but also providing accurate information on their precise locations. The material can be readily applied to any type of ground vehicle.

In the controls area, both linear and nonlinear models of robot steering are presented. Through these applications, the reader is introduced to linearization and use of linear control design methods for control about a reference trajectory; use of Lyapunov stability theory for nonlinear control design; derivation of optimal control strategies via Pontryagin′s maximum principle; and derivation of a local coordinate system. In navigation, the global positioning system (GPS) is described in detail, as are inertial navigation systems (INS), which are treated in terms of their ability to provide vehicle position as well as altitude. In remote sensing methods, the author addresses the problem of ground registration of detected objects of interest, which provides essential information for any future actions (such as inspection or retrieval).

The book covers control of a robotic manipulator as well as airborne sensing and detection of objects on the ground. It also explains the use of optimal processing via the Kalman Filter when there are multiple detections of the same object, and the decision process of associating detections with the proper objects when tracking multiple objects.

The book′s clear presentation, numerous examples in each chapter, and references combine to make Mobile Robots a textbook for a one–semester electrical engineering graduate course on the same subject area. Since the topics covered in this volume cut across traditional curricular boundaries and bring together material from several engineering disciplines, this book also serves as a text for courses taught in mechanical or aerospace engineering, as well as a valuable resource for practicing engineers working in related areas.

Cover Images: (top circle) U.S. Air Force Global Hawk, an unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, photograph reproduced with permission of Airforce Link; (bottom circle) autonomous underwater vehicle, photo taken by an employee of Bluefin Robotics Corporation during U.S. Navy exercise from the HSV Swift; (lower panel) artist′s rendition of Mars Exploration Rover, image by Maas Digital LLC for Cornell University and NASA/JPL.

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Preface xi

Introduction xiii

1 Kinematic Models for Mobile Robots 1

1.0 Introduction, 1

1.1 Vehicles with Front–Wheel Steering, 1

1.2 Vehicles with Differential–Drive Steering, 5

Exercises, 8

References, 9

2 Mobile Robot Control 11

2.0 Introduction, 11

2.1 Front–Wheel Steered Vehicle, Heading Control, 11

2.2 Front–Wheel Steered Vehicle, Speed Control, 22

2.3 Heading and Speed Control for the Differential–Drive Robot, 23

2.4 Reference Trajectory and Incremental Control, Front–Wheel Steered Robot, 26

2.5 Heading Control of Front–Wheel Steered Robot Using the Nonlinear Model, 32

2.6 Computed Control for Heading and Velocity, Front–Wheel Steered Robot, 36

2.7 Heading Control of Differential Drive Robot Using the Nonlinear Model, 38

2.8 Computed Control for Heading and Velocity, Differential–Drive Robot, 39

2.9 Steering Control Along a Path Using a Local Coordinate Frame, 41

2.10 Optimal Steering of Front–Wheel Steered Vehicle, 54

2.11 Optimal Steering of Front–Wheel Steered Vehicle, Free Final Heading Angle, 75

Exercises, 77

References, 78

3 Robot Attitude 79

3.0 Introduction, 79

3.1 Defi nition of Yaw, Pitch and Roll, 79

3.2 Rotation Matrix for Yaw, 80

3.3 Rotation Matrix for Pitch, 82

3.4 Rotation Matrix for Roll, 84

3.5 General Rotation Matrix, 86

3.6 Homogeneous Transformation, 88

3.7 Rotating a Vector, 92

Exercises, 93

References, 94

4 Robot Navigation 95

4.0 Introduction, 95

4.1 Coordinate Systems, 95

4.2 Earth–Centered Earth–Fixed Coordinate System, 96

4.3 Associated Coordinate Systems, 98

4.4 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System, 102

4.5 Global Positioning System, 104

4.6 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS, Numerical Methods, 108

4.6.1 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS via Newton s Method, 108

4.6.2 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS via Minimization of a Performance Index, 116

4.7 Array of GPS Antennas, 123

4.8 Gimbaled Inertial Navigation Systems, 126

4.9 Strap–Down Inertial Navigation Systems, 131

4.10 Dead Reckoning or Deduced Reckoning, 137

4.11 Inclinometer/Compass, 138

Exercises, 142

References, 147

5 Application of Kalman Filtering 149

5.0 Introduction, 149

5.1 Estimating a Fixed Quantity Using Batch Processing, 149

5.2 Estimating a Fixed Quantity Using

Recursive Processing, 151

5.3 Estimating the State of a Dynamic System Recursively, 156

5.4 Estimating the State of a Nonlinear System via the Extended Kalman Filter, 169

Exercises, 185

References, 189

6 Remote Sensing 191

6.0 Introduction, 191

6.1 Camera Type Sensors, 191

6.2 Stereo Vision, 202

6.3 Radar Sensing: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), 206

6.4 Pointing of Range Sensor at Detected Object, 212

6.5 Detection Sensor in Scanning Mode, 217

Exercises, 222

References, 223

7 Target Tracking Including Multiple Targets with Multiple Sensors 225

7.0 Introduction, 225

7.1 Regions of Confidence for Sensors, 225

7.2 Model of Target Location, 232

7.3 Inventory of Detected Targets, 239

Exercises, 244

References, 245

8 Obstacle Mapping and its Application to Robot Navigation 247

8.0 Introduction, 247

8.1 Sensors for Obstacle Detection and Geo–Registration, 248

8.2 Dead Reckoning Navigation, 249

8.3 Use of Previously Detected Obstacles for Navigation, 252

8.4 Simultaneous Corrections of Coordinates of Detected Obstacles and of the Robot, 258

Exercises, 262

References, 263

9 Operating a Robotic Manipulator 265

9.0 Introduction, 265

9.1 Forward Kinematic Equations, 265

9.2 Path Specifi cation in Joint Space, 269

9.3 Inverse Kinematic Equations, 271

9.4 Path Specifi cation in Cartesian Space, 276

9.5 Velocity Relationships, 284

9.6 Forces and Torques, 289

Exercises, 292

References, 293

10 Remote Sensing via UAVS 295

10.0 Introduction, 295

10.1 Mounting of Sensors, 295

10.2 Resolution of Sensors, 296

10.3 Precision of Vehicle Instrumentation, 297

10.4 Overall Geo–Registration Precision, 298

Exercises, 300

References, 300

Appendix A Demonstrations of Undergraduate Student Robotic Projects 301

A.0 Introduction, 301

A.1 Demonstration of the GEONAVOD Robot, 301

A.2 Demonstration of the Automatic Balancing Robotic Bicycle (ABRB), 302

See demonstration videos at <a href="[external URL]

Index 305
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GERALD COOK, ScD, is the Earle C. Williams Professor of Electrical Engineering and past chairman of electrical and computer engineering at George Mason University. He was previously chairman of electrical and biomedical engineering at Vanderbilt University and professor of electrical engineering at the University of Virginia. He is a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), as well as a recipient of the IEEE Centennial Award and the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) Mittelmann Achievement Award. He is a former president of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and a former editor in–chief of theIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.
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