Multiphase polymer systems are an important research topic from both industrial and fundamental points of view. This new generation of materials offers enhanced physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical properties, and finds use in many fields such as automotive, aeronautics and space industry, cabling, civil engineering and medicine. They cover a wide range of materials such as composites, blends, alloys, gels and interpenetrating polymer networks.
This double–volume book examines the recent advances covering physical, interfacial, and thermophysical properties of multiphase polymer systems. It includes manufacturing and processing techniques, characterization techniques, materials modeling, applications and also ageing, degradation and recycling. It pays particular attention to characterization at different length scales (macro, micro and nano) which is necessary for a full understanding of the structure–property relationships of multiphase polymer systems.
Ideal for researchers in both industry and academia who wish to learn about these promising new materials, the Handbook of Multiphase Polymer Systems is also useful for plastic and rubber technologists, filler specialists and researchers in fields studying thermal, mechanical and electrical properties.
1 Physical, Thermophysical and Interfacial Properties of Multiphase Polymer Systems: State of the Art, New Challenges and Opportunities.
1.2 Multiphase polymer systems.
1.3 A short survey of the literature and applications.
1.4 Book content.
1.5 Future outlook, new challenges and opportunities.
2 Macro, Micro and Nano Mechanics of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
2.2 Unentangled systems.
2.3 Entangled systems.
3 Theory and Simulation of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
3.2 Basic concepts of polymer theory.
3.3 Theory of multiphase polymer mixtures.
3.4 Simulations of multiphase polymer systems.
3.5 Future challenges.
4 Interfaces in Multiphase Polymer Systems.
4.2 Basic considerations.
4.3 Characteristics of interfacial layers.
4.4 Interface modifications: Types and aims.
4.5 Responsive interphases.
4.6 Methods of interface analysis.
5 Manufacturing of Multiphase Polymeric Systems.
5.2 Manufacturing techniques of polymer blends.
5.3 Manufacturing techniques of polymer composites.
5.4 Manufacturing techniques of nanocomposites.
5.5 Manufacturing techniques of polymer gels.
5.6 Manufacturing techniques of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs).
5.7 Conclusion and future outlook.
6 Macro, Micro and Nanostructred Morphologies of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
6.2 Morphology development mechanisms of multphase polymer systems during processing.
6.3 Material–relevant factors affecting the morphology.
6.4 Processing relevant factors affecting the morphology.
7 Mechanical and Viscoelastic Characterization of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
7.2 Polymer blends.
7.3 Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs).
7.4 Polymer gels.
7.5 Polymer composites.
7.6 Conclusion, future trends and challenges.
8 Rheology and Viscoelasticity of Multiphase Polymer Systems: blends and block copolymers.
8.2 Morphology of polymer blends.
8.3 Microrheology of droplet deformation.
8.4 Rheology of polymer blends.
8.5 Microphase separated block copolymers.
8.6 Dynamic viscoelastic results of SEBS copolymers.
8.7 Flow–induced morphological changes.
8.8 Capillary extrusion rheometry results of block copolymers.
9 Thermal Analysis of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
9.2 Thermo–optical microscopy.
9.3 Differential scanning calorimetry.
9.4 Temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry.
9.5 Micro– and nanothermal analysis.
9.6 Thermal gravimetric analysis and evolved gas analysis.
10 Thermophysical Properties of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
10.2 Thermophysical properties: Short definitions.
10.3 Measurement techniques.
10.4 Thermophysical properties of polymers and composite systems.
11 Electrically Conductive Polymeric Composites and Nanocomposites.
11.3 Electrically conductive fillers.
11.4 Effect of processing conditions on the electrical behavior of composites.
11.6 Resistance measurements.
12 Dielectric Spectroscopy and Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Current Analysis of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
12.2 Dielectric techniques.
12.3 Copolymers and interpenetrating polymer networks based on Poly(alkyl acrylate)s and Poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (mixing and phase separation).
12.4 Rubber/silica nanocomposites (interfacial phenomena).
12.5 Polymer nanocomposites with conductive carbon inclusions (percolation phenomena).
13 Solid–state NMR spectroscopy of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
13.1 Introduction to NMR.
13.2 Phases in polymers: Polymer conformation.
13.3 High resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy of solid polymers.
13.4 Additional nuclei.
13.5 NMR relaxation.
13.6 Spin diffusion.
13.7 Concluding remarks.
14 ESR Spectroscopy of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
14.2 Theoretical background.
14.4 Grafted polymers.
14.6 Crosslinked polymers.
14.7 Semi–interpenetrating networks (SIPNs).
14.10 Other polymer multiphase systems.
15 XPS Studies of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
15.2 Basic principles of X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
15.3 Applications of XPS to polymeric materials.
16 Light Scattering Studies of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
16.2 Light scattering technique.
16.3 Phase behavior of multiphase polymer systems studied by SALS.
16.4 On–line morphological characterization of polymer blends.
16.5 Light scattering characterization of other multiphase polymer systems.
17 X–ray Scattering Studies on Multiphase Polymer Systems.
17.2 Theoretical background.
17.3 Studies on multiphase polymer systems.
17.4 Concluding remarks.
18 Characterization of Multiphase Systems by Neutron Scattering.
18.2 Method of neutron scattering.
18.3 Experimental techniques.
18.4 Recent experimental results.
19 Gas Diffusion in Multiphase Polymer Systems.
19.2 Gas transport mechanisms in dense polymer films: Definition of the transport parameters.
19.3 Multiphase polymer systems for improved barrier properties.
19.4 Multiphase polymer–based systems for improved selectivity.
20 Nondestructive Testing of Composite Materials.
20.2 Failure mechanisms in polymer composites.
20.3 Visual inspection.
20.4 Acoustic emission.
20.5 Ultrasonic scanning.
20.8 Laser interferometry.
20.9 Electronic shearography.
20.10 Optical deformation and strain measurement system.
21 Ageing and Degradation of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
21.2 Physical ageing.
21.3 Chemical ageing.
21.4 Impact of multiphase structure on ageing processes.
21.5 Practical impact of physical ageing on use properties.
21.6 Concluding remarks.
22 Fire Retardancy of Multiphase Polymer Systems.
22.2 Combustion and flame retardancy of polymers.
22.3 Laboratory fire testing.
22.4 Flame retardant additives.
22.5 Synergistic effects of fillers with flame retardant additives.
23 Applications of Selected Multiphase Systems.
23.2 Construction appliances.
23.3 Aeronautics and spacecraft applications.
23.4 Human medicine applications.
23.5 Electrical and electronic applications.
24 Waste Management, Recycling and Regeneration of Filled Polymers.
24.2 Identification and sorting.
24.3 Separation of components.
24.4 Feedstsock recycling.
24.5 Thermal processes.
24.6 Mechanical recycling of filled thermoplastics.
24.7 Waste management of glass fiber–reinforced thermoset plastics.
25 Nanoparticle Reinforcement of Elastomers and Some Other Types of Polymers.
25.2 Fillers in Elastomers.
25.3 Nanoparticles in glassy polymers.
25.4 Nanoparticles in partially–crystalline polymers.
25.5 Nanoparticles in naturally–occurring polymers.
25.6 Nanoparticles in relatively–rigid polymers.
25.7 Nanoparticles in thermoset polymers.