Nondestructive Testing of Deep Foundations

  • ID: 2171246
  • Book
  • 290 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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In modern structural and civil engineering, non–destructive testing is an invaluable engineering tool, allowing engineers to assess and test a building’s structural integrity at any stage of the structural life cycle, from construction to demolition, and assess all parts of the structure from the foundations up.  Non–destructive testing uses key physical principles such as wave propagation, elasticity, electromagnetism, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, to test, assess, and subsequently allow for the resolution of possible structural problems before they become significant or cause failure.

This highly useful manual:

  • Covers all commercially viable non–destructive foundation test methods for the most commonly used deep foundation construction techniques
  • Includes a brief history of the development of all commercially available test methods
  • Summarises each method’s capabilities and limitations
  • Acts as an excellent reference tool drawing together resources not previously available in one volume

Non–Destructive Testing of Deep Foundations integrates past and modern NDT practices with a review of emerging technologies, making this both a highly useful teaching aid for researchers, lecturers, and postgraduate students in civil/structural, geotechnical engineering, and architecture, as well as a handy reference tool for the practising engineer.

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FOREWORD.

PREFACE.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.

PHOTOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION CREDITS.

1. INTRODUCTION AND A BRIEF HISTORY.

1.1Introduction.

1.2A Brief History of Deep Foundations and the Advent of NDT.

1.3Deep Foundation Failures and ND.

1.4 Deficiencies in Existing Foundations.

2. Deep Foundation Construction Methods.

2.1Driven Piles – Timber, Steel and Concrete.

2.2Caissons and Drilled Shafts.

2.3Diaphragm Walls, Cut–off Walls and Barrettes.

2.4Augured, Cast–in–place Pile.

2.5 Micropiles or Minipiles.

2.6Stone Columns and other Soil Improvement Techniques.

3. HOW SOILS AFFECT THE CHOICE OF FOUNDATION.

4. TRADITIONAL, VISUAL AND NEW INSPECTION METHODS  FOR DEEP FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION.

1.1 Driven Piles.

4.2 Augured Cast–in–place Piles.

4.3Drilled Shafts.

4.4The Inspector’s Role.

5. A REVIEW OF FULL–SCALE LOAD–TESTING TECHNIQUES.

5.1Static Load–test Techniques – Axial Compression.

5.2Static Load–test Techniques – Axial Tension.

5.3Static Load–test Techniques – Lateral.

6. HIGH–STRAIN TESTING FOR CAPACITY AND/OR INTEGRITY.

6.1High–strain Dynamic (Drop–weight) Testing of Driven Piles.

6.2High–strain Testing of Drilled Shafts and Augered,Cast–in–place Piles.

6.3Modification of Shaft Head for High–strain Tests.

6.4Practical Considerations for Drop–weight Techniques.

6.5HSDT Alternatives.

6.6Limitations of High–strain Dynamic Testing.

7. LOW–STRAIN SURFACE TESTS – SONIC ECHO.

7.1Sonic Echo (Impulse Echo).

8. SONIC MOBILITY (IMPULSE RESPONSE).

8.1Principles of Impulse–Response Curve Interpretation. 

8.2Practical Considerations.

8.3Classification of Signal Responses.

8.4Pile Simulation Techniques.

8.5Time Domain–Velocity Reflectors.

9. THE IMPEDANCE–LOG ANALYSIS.

10.LOW–STRAIN DOWN–HOLE TESTS.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Cross–Hole Sonic Logging.

10.3Cross–Hole Tomography. 

10.4 Single–Hole Sonic Logging.

10.5Gamma–Gamma Logging. 

10.6Parallel Seismic Testing.

11. FIELD MOCK–UPS OF DEEP FOUNDATIONS: CLASS–A PREDICTIONS.

12. THE RELIABILITY OF PILE SHAFT INTEGRITY TESTING.

12.1 Statistical NDT Sampling Schemes.

12.2 Methodology Reliability.

13. CURRENT RESEARCH.

13.1 Developments in Measurements and Analysis.

13.2Electrical Methods.

13.3Optical Techniques.

13.4Guided Wave Analysis.

13.5Statistical Analysis.

13.6Self–consolidating Concrete. 

13.7Acceptable Vibration Levels.

13.8Automated Monitoring Systems.

13.9Wireless Acquisition Systems. 

13.10Smart’ Structures.

14. THE PLACE OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY.

14.1Nondestructive Testing and Load and Resistance Factor Design.

14.2Setting Up an Effective Quality Management Program. 

14.3Who’s Testing the Tester?. 

14.4Acceptance Criteria.

14.5  Evaluating Defects.

APPENDIX I. STRESS–WAVE PROPAGATION IN CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURES.

Unknown Mechanical Impedance at its Base.

APPENDIX II. CONTACT ADDRESSES.

APPENDIX III. STANDARDS REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK.

APPENDIX IV. SAMPLE SPECIFICATIONS FOR NDT METHODS FOR DEEP FOUNDATIONS.

REFERENCES.

INDEX.

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Bernard Hertlein
Allen Davis
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