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Root Genomics and Soil Interactions

  • ID: 2171358
  • Book
  • 296 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Root Genomics and Soil Interactions explores the use of genome–based technologies to understand root development and adaptability to biotic and abiotic stresses and to changes in the soil environment. Chapters in the first section cover new areas in basic root biology that have been unveiled by genomics research, while chapters in the second section provide the reader with information on genomic approaches being applied to analysis of root responses to the soil environment.

Fully integrated, comprehensive in its coverage, and focused on applying the insights from model organisms to agriculturally important crops, Root Genomics and Soil Interactions will be an important resource for root biologists, plant biologists, and crop scientists.

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Contributors ix

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Genomics of Root Development 3Boris Parizot and Tom Beeckman

Introduction 3

Genomics of LRI 7

Rise of New Technologies to Understand Lateral Root Development 19

ComparativOmics, the Future 20

Acknowledgments 21

References 21

Chapter 2 The Complex Eukaryotic Transcriptome: Nonprotein–Coding RNAs and Root Development 29F. Ariel, A.B. Moreno, F. Bardou, and M. Crespi

Genomic Approaches Reveal Novel Aspects of the Eukaryotic Transcriptome 29

The Role of RNA–Binding Proteins in npcRNA Metabolism and Activity 34

Nonprotein–Coding RNAs in Root Development 38

Future Perspectives 42

Acknowledgments 42

References 42

Chapter 3 Genomics of Auxin Action in Roots 49Elisabeth L. Williams and Ive De Smet

Introduction 49

The Basis of Auxin Biology 49

Auxin Genomics in Root Development 55

Auxin and Root Hair Development 56

Auxin in Gravitropism 57

Auxin in LR Initiation 57

Conclusion 58

Acknowledgments 58

References 58

Chapter 4 Cell–Type Resolution Analysis of Root Development and Environmental Responses 63Jose R. Dinneny

Introduction 63

Tools for Cell–Type Resolution Analysis 64

Analysis of Spatiotemporal Expression Patterns in the Arabidopsis Root 69

Analysis of Cell–Type–Specific Expression Patterns in the Rice Root 70

Cell–Type–Specific Analysis of Auxin 71

Cell–Type–Specific Analyses of Chromatin 71

Cell–Type–Specific Analyses of Responses to Environmental Change 72

Future Prospects 76

Acknowledgments 76

References 77

Chapter 5 Toward a Virtual Root: Interaction of Genomics and Modeling to Develop Predictive Biology Approaches 79Julien Lavenus, Leah Band, Alistair Middleton, Michael Wilson, Mikael Lucas, Laurent Laplaze, and Malcolm Bennett

Assembling Root Gene Regulatory Pathways Using Genomics 79

Modeling Well–Characterized Small Root Gene Regulatory Networks 81

Building New Large–Scale Root Gene Regulatory Network 84

Multi–Scale Modeling Approaches to Study Root Growth and Development 88

Conclusions and Future Challenges 89

References 91

Chapter 6 Genomics of Root Hairs 93Hyung–Taeg Cho

Genomics with Single Cells 93

Root Hair Development 94

High–Throughput Approaches for the Characterization of Root Hairs 95

Functions of Root Hair–Specific Genes 103

The Regulatory Pathway for Root Hair–Specific Genes 110

Perspective 111

Acknowledgments 111

References 112

Chapter 7 The Effects of Moisture Extremes on Plant Roots and Their Connections with Other Abiotic Stresses 117Laura M. Vaughn and Henry T. Nguyen

Introduction 117

Low Water Availability Drought 118

Excess Water Soil Waterlogging, Flooding, and Submergence 128

Common Plant Root Responses to Abiotic Stressors 135

Continuing Challenges in Breeding for Plant Root Systems Tolerant to Abiotic Stress 137

Acknowledgments 138

References 138

Chapter 8 Legume Roots and Nitrogen–Fixing Symbiotic Interactions 145Philippe Laporte, Andreas Niebel, and Florian Frugier

Genetic Dissection of the Legume Root System 145

Functional Genomic Analyses of Legume Nodules and Roots 155

Concluding Remarks 161

Acknowledgments 162

References 162

Chapter 9 What the Genomics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Teaches Us about Root Development 171Damien Formey, Cyril Jourda, Christophe Roux, and Pierre–Marc Delaux

Forward and Reverse Genetics for Identifying Myc Mutants 172

Comparative Transcriptomics of AM Symbiosis: Toward Identification of Genes

Involved in Root Development 175

Small RNAs in AM Symbiosis 181

Acknowledgments 183

References 183

Chapter 10 How Pathogens Affect Root Structure 189Michael Quentin, Tarek Hewezi, Isabelle Damiani, Pierre Abad, Thomas Baum, and Bruno Favery

Introduction 189

Root Infection and Feeding Cell Ontogenesis 190

Genome–Wide Analysis of the Plant Response to Infection 192

The Plant Cytoskeleton Is Targeted by Root Pathogens 193

Root Pathogens Hijack Cell Cycle Regulators 194

Severe Cell Wall Remodeling Is Associated with Feeding Site Formation 195

Phytohormones Regulating Development and Defense May Control Feeding Site Formation 196

Role of miRNAs in Feeding Site Formation and Function 198

Nematode Effectors That Alter Root Cell Development during Parasitism 200

Conclusion 203

Acknowledgments 204

References 204

Chapter 11 Genomics of the Root Actinorhizal Symbiosis 211Valerie Hocher, Nicole Alloisio, Laurent Laplaze, Didier Bogusz, and Philippe Normand

Introduction 211

Actinorhizal Symbiosis 212

Development of Actinorhizal Nodules 214

Genomic Resources for Studying Actinorhizal Symbiosis 217

What Did We Learn from Actinorhizal Genomics? 220

Conclusion and Future Directions 222

Acknowledgments 222

References 223

Chapter 12 Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Root Architecture 227Thais L.G. Carvalho, Paulo C.G. Ferreira, and Adriana S. Hemerly

Introduction 227

Different Root Niches for PGPR Colonization 228

PGPR Recognition by Plants 229

Modulation of Root Growth and Architecture by PGPRs 232

Mechanisms of Plant Growth Promotion by PGPRs 234

Plant Genetic Programs Controlling Modulation of Root Growth and Architecture by PGPRs 240

Conclusions 241

Acknowledgments 242

References 242

Chapter 13 Translational Root Genomics for Crop Improvement 249Reyazul Rouf Mir, Mahendar Thudi, Siva K. Chamarthi, L. Krishnamurthy, Pooran M. Gaur, and Rajeev K. Varshney

Introduction 249

Molecular Dissection of Root Trait 258

Molecular Breeding for Root Traits 259

Summary and Outlook 260

Acknowledgments 260

References 260

Index 265

Color plate located between pages 144 and 145

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Martin Crespi
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