An antigen is a substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response. The antigen retrieval (AR) technique is in wide use across the globe, and is a critical technique used in medical diagnosis of disease, particularly clinical targeted cancer treatment.
Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics discusses several scientific approaches to the standardization of quantifiable immunohistochemistry (IHC). Based on the development and application of AR by the editors, this volume summarizes recent achievements in AR–IHC and analyzes numerous cutting–edge issues for future research projects.
Featuring contributions from a worldwide group of leading experts and research scientists in the field, this important work:
- Summarizes the key problems in the four fields of antigen retrieval
- Discusses the advances of AR techniques and their applications
- Provides practical methods and protocols in AR–IHC, such as extraction of nucleic acids and proteins for molecular analysis, cell/tissue sample preparation, and standardization and development of various techniques to meet the future needs of¿clinical and research molecular analysis
- Encourages further research in AR and IHC, particularly how AR methods might be employed for improved test performance and the development of greater reliability and reproducibility of IHC
- Includes an appendix of related laboratory protocols
Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry Based Research and Diagnostics is intended for clinical pathologists, molecular cell biologists, basic research scientists, technicians, and graduate students who undertake tissue/cell morphologic and molecular analysis and wish to use and extend the power of immunohistochemistry. It is also pertinent for most biotechnology companies majoring in development of IHC products.
Wiley Series in Biomedical Engineering and Multi–Disciplinary Integrated Systems / Kai Chang, Series Editor
PART I: RECENT ADVANCES IN ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUES AND ITS APPLICATION.
1 STANDARDIZATION OF ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUES BASED ON THE TEST BATTERY APPROACH (Shan–Rong Shi and Clive R. Taylor).
2 EXTENDED APPLICATION OF ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUE IN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (Shan–Rong Shi and Clive R. Taylor).
3 EXTRACTION OF DNA/RNA FROM FORMALIN–FIXED, PARAFFIN–EMBEDDED TISSUE BASED ON THE ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL PRINCIPLE (Shan–Rong Shi and Clive R. Taylor).
PART II: STANDARDIZATION OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY.
4 KEY ISSUES AND STRATEGIES OF STANDARDIZATION FOR QUANTIFIABLE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY (Shan–Rong Shi, Kevin A. Roth, and Clive R. Taylor).
5 STANDARDIZATION OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY BASED ON ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUE (Shan–Rong Shi and Clive R. Taylor).
6 STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL: CELL LINE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF REFERENCE CELL LINES AS STANDARDS FOR EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE OF HER2 IHC AND ISH TESTING (Bharat Jasani, Vicky Reid, Colin Tristram, Jeremy Walker, Paul Scorer, Michael Morgan, John Bartlett, Merdol Ibrahim, and Keith Miller).
7 PEPTIDES AS IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY CONTROLS (Steven A. Bogen and Seshi R. Sompuram).
8 STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL: PROTEINEMBEDDING TECHNIQUE AND DESIGN OF BAR CODE (Shan–Rong Shi, Jiang Gu, and Clive R. Taylor).
9 THE PROS AND CONS OF AUTOMATION FOR IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY FROM THE PROSPECTIVE OF THE PATHOLOGY LABORATORY (David G. Hicks and Loralee McMahon).
10 IMAGE ANALYSIS IN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY (Alton D. Floyd).
PART III TISSUE/CELL SAMPLE PREPARATION.
11 TISSUE CELL SAMPLE PREPARATION: LESSONS FROM THE ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUE (Shan–Rong Shi and Clive R. Taylor).
12 MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND PROPER USE OF COMMON FIXATIVES (Richard W. Dapson).
13 CELL SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR CLINICAL CYTOPATHOLOGY: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT (Yan Shi and Patricia G. Wasserman).
14 DESIGN OF A TISSUE SURROGATE TO EXAMINE ACCURACY OF PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS (Carol B. Fowler, Jeffrey T. Mason, and Timothy J. O′leary).
PART IV: MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL TECHNIQUE.
15 STUDY OF FORMALIN FIXATION AND HEAT–INDUCED ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL (Jeffrey T. Mason, Carol B. Fowler, and Timothy J. O′leary).
16 A LINEAR EPITOPES MODEL OF ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL (Steven A. Bogen and Seshi R. Sompuram).
17 PH OR IONIC STRENGTH OF ANTIGEN RETRIEVAL SOLUTION: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR REFOLDING DURING HEAT TREATMENT (Shuji Yamashita).
18 COMMENTARY: FUTURE DIRECTIONS (Timothy J. O Leary, Carol B. Fowler, David L. Evers, Robert E. Cunningham, and Jeffrey T. Mason).
PART V: PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN EXTRACTED FROM TISSUE/CELLS.
19 TECHNIQUES OF PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM FFPE TISSUE/CELLS FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY (Carol B. Fowler, Timothy J. O Leary, and Jeffrey T. Mason).
20 APPLICATION OF SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS TO FORMALIN–FIXED AND PARAFFIN–EMBEDDED TISSUES (Brian M. Balgley).
21 VISUALIZING PROTEIN MAPS IN TISSUE (Masahiro Mukai and Mitsutoshi Setou).
22 SYMBIOSIS OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND PROTEOMICS: MARCHING TO A NEW ERA (Shan–Rong Shi, Brian M. Balgley, and Clive R. Taylor).
APPENDIX RELATED LABORATORY PROTOCOLS.
Clive R. Taylor, MD, PhD, is Senior Associate Dean, Professor and Chairman of Pathology at the Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Taylor is Editor in Chief of Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology. Dr. Taylor is a world renowned expert in immunohistochemistry and clinical pathology.