Forensic Analytical Techniques. Analytical Techniques in the Sciences (AnTs) *

  • ID: 2171584
  • Book
  • 234 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The public profile of forensic science has dramatically increased in recent decades and during this period there has been considerable expansion in the application of modern analytical techniques to the examination of forensic problems, particularly as a consequence of the development of portable instrumentation. The availability of new techniques has led to a greater choice of tools that can potentially be employed to analyse forensic specimens. An understanding of a broad range of analytical tools is required by the modern day forensic chemist and is an important aspect of their training.

Forensic Analytical Techniques

  • Clearly describes all the important analytical techniques used in forensic science
  • Provides detailed descriptions of how each technique works and how to prepare specimens for analysis
  • Offers explanations of how to analyse the data obtained
  • Targets a growing market in courses in forensic sciences at senior  undergraduate/graduate level and in dedicated professional forensic laboratories
  • Provides a resource for the teaching of forensic analytical techniques
  • Presents examples of specific applications of analytical techniques to forensic problems
  • Follows an open–learning approach enabling readers to assess their understanding with the use of discussion questions and self–assessment questions

This book is designed for students who are undertaking a forensic chemistry based program and require a sound knowledge of analytical techniques. It also provides a useful reference for forensic practitioners who may be interested in investigating new forms of evidence or techniques.

The Analytical Techniques in the Sciences series of books provides coverage of all of the major analytical techniques and their application in the most important areas of physical, life and materials science. Each text is presented in an open learning/distance learning style, in which the learning objectives are clearly identified. The reader s understanding of the material is constantly evaluated by the use of self–assessment and discussion questions.

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Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

About the Author xvii

Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols xix

1 The Chemistry of Forensic Evidence 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Evidence Types 2

1.2.1 Polymers 2

1.2.2 Fibres 6

1.2.3 Paint 7

1.2.4 Documents 9

1.2.5 Glass 10

1.2.6 Soil 11

1.2.7 Explosives 12

1.2.8 Firearms 14

1.2.9 Arson 14

1.2.10 Body Fluids 16

1.2.11 Drugs and Toxicology 16

1.2.12 Fingerprints 21

1.3 Introduction to Data Analysis 23

1.4 Summary 24

2 Preliminary Tests 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Chemical Tests 27

2.2.1 Methods 28

2.2.2 Drugs and Toxicology 28

2.2.3 Body Fluids 29

2.2.4 Gunshot Residue 30

2.2.5 Explosives 31

2.2.6 Paint 31

2.2.7 Documents 32

2.3 Density 32

2.3.1 Methods 32

2.3.2 Glass 33

2.3.3 Soil 33

2.3.4 Polymers 34

2.4 Light Examination 35

2.4.1 Methods 35

2.4.2 Fingerprints 36

2.4.3 Body fluids 38

2.4.4 Documents 38

2.5 Summary 39

3 Microscopic Techniques 41

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Optical Microscopy 42

3.2.1 Methods 42

3.2.2 Interpretation 44

3.2.3 Fibres 45

3.2.4 Paint 48

3.2.5 Drugs 49

3.2.6 Glass 49

3.2.7 Soil 50

3.2.8 Documents 51

3.2.9 Firearms 51

3.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy 51

3.3.1 Method 52

3.3.2 Interpretation 53

3.3.3 Paint 53

3.4 Scanning Electron Microscopy 54

3.4.1 Methods 54

3.4.2 Interpretation 55

3.4.3 Gunshot Residue 56

3.4.4 Paint 57

3.4.5 Fibres 58

3.4.6 Documents 58

3.4.7 Glass 59

3.5 Atomic Force Microscopy 59

3.5.1 Methods 59

3.5.2 Interpretation 60

3.5.3 Documents 60

3.6 X–Ray Diffraction 60

3.6.1 Methods 62

3.6.2 Interpretation 63

3.6.3 Explosives 63

3.6.4 Paint 63

3.6.5 Drugs 64

3.6.6 Documents 65

3.6.7 Soil 65

3.7 Summary 66

4 Molecular Spectroscopy 69

4.1 Introduction 70

4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy 70

4.2.1 Methods 70

4.2.2 Interpretation 73

4.2.3 Paint 74

4.2.4 Fibres 75

4.2.5 Polymers 84

4.2.6 Documents 86

4.2.7 Explosives 89

4.2.8 Drugs 89

4.3 Raman Spectroscopy 89

4.3.1 Methods 90

4.3.2 Interpretation 91

4.3.3 Drugs 91

4.3.4 Paint 93

4.3.5 Fibres 94

4.3.6 Documents 94

4.3.7 Explosives 94

4.4 Ultraviolet visible Spectroscopy 95

4.4.1 Methods 95

4.4.2 Interpretation 97

4.4.3 Fibres 97

4.4.4 Paint 98

4.4.5 Documents 99

4.4.6 Drugs 99

4.4.7 Toxicology 101

4.5 Fluorescence Spectroscopy 101

4.5.1 Methods 101

4.5.2 Interpretation 102

4.5.3 Body Fluids 102

4.5.4 Toxicology 103

4.5.5 Fibres 104

4.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 104

4.6.1 Methods 104

4.6.2 Interpretation 105

4.6.3 Drugs 107

4.6.4 Explosives 108

4.7 Summary 109

5 Elemental Analysis 113

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Atomic Spectrometry 114

5.2.1 Methods 114

5.2.2 Interpretation 115

5.2.3 Glass 115

5.2.4 Gunshot Residue 116

5.2.5 Toxicology 116

5.3 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry 117

5.3.1 Methods 117

5.3.2 Interpretation 118

5.3.3 Glass 118

5.3.4 Paint 118

5.3.5 Gunshot Residue 119

5.4 X–Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy 119

5.4.1 Methods 120

5.4.2 Interpretation 120

5.4.3 Glass 121

5.4.4 Gunshot Residue 122

5.4.5 Paint 122

5.5 Particle–Induced X–Ray Emission Spectroscopy 123

5.5.1 Methods 124

5.5.2 Interpretation 124

5.5.3 Glass 124

5.6 Neutron Activation Analysis 125

5.7 Summary 125

6 Mass Spectrometry 129

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Molecular Mass Spectrometry 129

6.2.1 Methods 130

6.2.2 Interpretation 132

6.2.3 Drugs 132

6.2.4 Explosives 134

6.3 Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry 134

6.3.1 Methods 135

6.3.2 Interpretation 136

6.3.3 Drugs 136

6.3.4 Explosives 136

6.4 Ion Mobility Spectrometry 137

6.4.1 Methods 137

6.4.2 Interpretation 137

6.4.3 Explosives 138

6.4.4 Drugs 138

6.5 Summary 140

7 Separation Techniques 143

7.1 Introduction 144

7.2 Paper Chromatography 144

7.2.1 Method 144

7.2.2 Interpretation 144

7.2.3 Documents 145

7.3 Thin Layer Chromatography 145

7.3.1 Methods 146

7.3.2 Interpretation 146

7.3.3 Drugs 146

7.3.4 Documents 147

7.3.5 Fibres 148

7.3.6 Explosives 148

7.4 Gas Chromatography 149

7.4.1 Methods 149

7.4.2 Interpretation 150

7.4.3 Drugs 150

7.4.4 Toxicology 152

7.4.5 Arson Residues 154

7.4.6 Explosives 155

7.5 Liquid Chromatography 155

7.5.1 Methods 155

7.5.2 Interpretation 156

7.5.3 Drugs and Toxicology 156

7.5.4 Fibres 158

7.6 Ion Chromatography 159

7.6.1 Methods 159

7.6.2 Interpretation 159

7.6.3 Explosives 159

7.7 Capillary Electrophoresis 161

7.7.1 Methods 161

7.7.2 Interpretation 162

7.7.3 Drugs and Toxicology 162

7.7.4 Explosives and Gunshot Residues 163

7.8 Summary 163

8 Thermal Analysis 167

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 Pyrolysis Techniques 168

8.2.1 Methods 168

8.2.2 Interpretation 168

8.2.3 Paint 169

8.2.4 Fibres 170

8.2.5 Polymers 170

8.2.6 Documents 171

8.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis 171

8.3.1 Methods 172

8.3.2 Interpretation 172

8.3.3 Polymers 173

8.3.4 Fibres 173

8.4 Thermogravimetric Analysis 174

8.4.1 Methods 174

8.4.2 Interpretation 175

8.4.3 Polymers 176

8.4.4 Explosives and Arson Residues 178

8.5 Summary 178

References 178

Bibliography 195

Glossary of Terms 197

SI Units and Physical Constants 203

Periodic Table 207

Index 209

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Barbara Stuart (BSc(Hons), MSc(Syd), PhD(Lond), DIC, MRSC, MRACI, Cchem)

After graduating with a BSc degree from the University of Sydney in Australia, Barbara Stuart worked as a tutor at this university. She also carried out research in the field of biophysical chemistry in the Department of Physical Chemistry and graduated with a MSc in 1990. The author moved to the UK to carry out doctoral studies in polymer engineering within the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology at Imperial College (University of London). After obtaining her PhD in 1993, she took up a position as Lecturer in Physical Chemistry at the University of Greenwich in London. Barbara joined the staff at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia in 1995, where she is currently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry, Materials and Forensic Science. She is presently conducting research in the fields of polymer spectroscopy, materials conservation and forensic science. Barbara is the author of four books published by Wiley, "Modern Infrared Spectroscopy", "Biological Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy", "Polymer Analysis" and "Infrared Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications" in the current ANTS series of texts and "Analytical Techniques in Materials Conservation".
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