Infochemistry. Information Processing at the Nanoscale

  • ID: 2171617
  • Book
  • 496 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Infochemistry, the science at the interface between chemistry and the information sciences, follows the potential use of molecular switches in advanced information processing and storage. Where traditional transistors are reaching their limits in miniaturization due to interconnectivity and material issues, molecular information processing could be the key to satisfying our ongoing need for increasing computational power.

This book describes the processes, systems and devices employed in infochemistry, and characterizes chemical systems according to their role as potential elements in information technology. It includes:

  • Theory of Information
  • Limitations of traditional devices
  • Low–Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors
  • Carbon and Carbon–Rich Nanostructures
  • Photocurrent switching and related phenomena
  • Supramolecular assembly
  • Molecular scale electronics, logic gates and computing systems
  • Bioinspired and biomimetic logic devices

Presenting a unique combination of chemistry and information technology, Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale defines this new field of science, and its future possibilities for advanced information processing.

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Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Introduction to the Theory of Information 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definition and Properties of Information 2

1.3 Principles of Boolean Algebra 4

1.4 Digital Information Processing and Logic Gates 7

1.4.1 Simple Logic Gates 7

1.4.2 Concatenated Logic Circuits 10

1.4.3 Sequential Logic Circuits 11

1.5 Ternary and Higher Logic Calculi 14

1.6 Irreversible vs Reversible Logic 16

1.7 Quantum Logic 18

References 20

2 Physical and Technological Limits of Classical Electronics 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Fundamental Limitations of Information Processing 24

2.3 Technological Limits of Miniaturization 27

References 34

3 Changing the Paradigm: Towards Computation with Molecules 37

References 53

4 Low–Dimensional Metals and Semiconductors 63

4.1 Dimensionality and Morphology of Nanostructures 63

4.2 Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanoobjects and Nanostructures 70

4.2.1 Metals 70

4.2.2 Semiconductors 84

4.3 Molecular Scale Engineering of Semiconducting Surfaces 96

4.3.1 Semiconductor Molecule Interactions 100

4.3.2 Electronic Coupling between Semiconducting Surfaces and Adsorbates 103

References 109

5 Carbon Nanostructures 119

5.1 Nanoforms of Carbon 119

5.2 Electronic Structure and Properties of Graphene 120

5.3 Carbon Nanotubes 129

5.4 Conjugated and Polyaromatic Systems 139

5.5 Nanocarbon and Organic Semiconductor Devices 149

References 156

6 Photoelectrochemical Photocurrent Switching and Related Phenomena 165

6.1 Photocurrent Generation and Switching in Neat Semiconductors 165

6.2 Photocurrent Switching in MIM Organic Devices 168

6.3 Photocurrent Switching in Semiconducting Composites 178

6.4 Photocurrent Switching in Surface–Modified Semiconductors 181

References 192

7 Self–Organization and Self–Assembly in Supramolecular Systems 199

7.1 Supramolecular Assembly: Towards Molecular Devices 199

7.2 Self–Assembled Semiconducting Structures 201

7.3 Self–Assembly at Solid Interfaces 210

7.4 Controlling Self–Assembly of Nanoparticles 212

7.5 Self–Assembly and Molecular Electronics 215

References 219

8 Molecular–Scale Electronics 225

8.1 Electron Transfer and Molecular Junctions 225

8.2 Nanoscale Electromagnetism 232

8.3 Molecular Rectifiers 238

References 246

9 Molecular Logic Gates 249

9.1 Introduction 249

9.2 Chemically Driven Logic Gates 249

9.2.1 OR Gates 252

9.2.2 AND Gates 255

9.2.3 XOR Gates 267

9.2.4 INH Gates 272

9.2.5 IMP Gates 281

9.2.6 Inverted Logic Gates (NOR, NAND, XNOR) 283

9.2.7 Behind Classical Boolean Scheme–Ternary Logic and Feynman Gate 289

9.3 All–Optical Logic Gates 298

9.4 Electrochemical Logic Systems 307

References 315

10 Molecular Computing Systems 323

10.1 Introduction 323

10.2 Reconfigurable and Superimposed Molecular Logic Devices 323

10.3 Concatenated Chemical Logic Systems 337

10.4 Molecular–Scale Digital Communication 353

10.4.1 Multiplexers and Demultiplexers 354

10.4.2 Encoders and Decoders 355

10.4.3 Molecular–Scale Signal Amplification 359

10.5 Molecular Arithmetics: Adders and Subtractors 363

10.5.1 Molecular–Scale Half–Adders 363

10.5.2 Molecular–Scale Half–Subtractors 372

10.5.3 Half–Adders/Half–Subtractors 381

10.5.4 Full Adders and Full Subtractors: Towards Molecular Processors 382

10.6 Molecular–Scale Security Systems 386

10.7 Noise and Error Propagation in Concatenated Systems 396

References 398

11 Bioinspired and Biomimetic Logic Devices 405

11.1 Information Processing in Natural Systems 405

11.2 Protein–Based Digital Systems 408

11.2.1 Enzymes as Information Processing Molecules 409

11.2.2 Enzymes as Information Carriers 428

11.3 Binary Logic Devices based on Nucleic Acids 430

11.4 Logic Devices Based on Whole Organisms 445

References 450

12 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 457

References 458

Index 461

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Konrad Szacilowski
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