Bio–Glasses. An Introduction

  • ID: 2171622
  • Book
  • 254 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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"understanding the science, technology and applications of bioactive glasses is a very important educational need for the healthcare and glass community. This unique book provides the fundamental level of comprehension needed the contents are authoritative."
Professor Larry L. Hench, Department of Materials and Engineering at the University of Florida

Bio–glasses can be used to direct cells to carry out specific tasks and heal diseased and damaged tissues. They can be used in this capacity to mend bones, as drug delivery agents and in cancer therapy. This is the first book dedicated to glasses (and their variants) that can be used as biomaterials. Covering all types of glasses: traditional, sol–gel, phosphate, borate, glass ceramics, composites and hybrids, the book discusses how each are made, the reasons for their use and their properties. It then moves on to describe applications, including tissue engineering, orthopedics, dentistry, and radiotherapy.

Written in a style that is accessible to the non–expert, Bio–Glasses: An Introduction explains the science and engineering principles behind glasses and their properties and provides an overview of their clinical applications.

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List of Contributors xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xvii

1 The Unique Nature of Glass 1Alexis G. Clare

1.1 What is Glass? 1

1.2 Making Glass 5

1.3 Homogeneity and Phase Separation 8

1.4 Forming 9

1.5 Glasses that are not "Melted" 10

1.6 Exotic Glass 11

1.7 Summary 11

2 Melt–Derived Bioactive Glass 13Matthew D. O′Donnell

2.1 Bioglass 13

2.2 Network Connectivity and Bioactivity 18

2.3 Alternative Bioactive Glass Compositions 19

2.4 In Vitro Studies 22

2.5 In Vivo Studies and Commercial Products 22

3 Sol Gel Derived Glasses for Medicine 29Julian R. Jones

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Why Use the Sol Gel Process? 30

3.3 Sol Gel Process Principles 31

3.4 Steps in a Typical Sol Gel Process 32

3.5 Evolution of Nanoporosity 36

3.6 Making Sol Gel Monoliths 37

3.7 Making Particles 38

3.8 Sol Gel Derived Bioactive Glasses 40

3.9 Summary 42

4 Phosphate Glasses 45Delia S. Brauer

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Making Phosphate Glasses 46

4.3 Phosphate Glass Structure 46

4.4 Temperature Behaviour and Crystallisation 50

4.5 Phosphate Glass Dissolution 56

4.6 Cell Compatibility of Glasses 59

4.7 Phosphate Glass Fibres and Composites 60

4.8 Applications 62

4.9 Summary 63

5 The Structure of Bioactive Glasses and Their Surfaces 67Alastair N. Cormack

5.1 Structure of Glasses 67

5.2 Structure of Bioactive Glasses 70

5.3 Computer Modeling (Theoretical Simulation) of Bioactive Glasses 71

5.4 Glass Surfaces 74

5.5 Summary 76

6 Bioactive Borate Glasses 77Steven B. Jung

6.1 Introduction 77

6.2 What Differentiates a Bioactive Borate Glass from Other Bioactive Glasses? 78

6.3 Evaluating Reactive Materials (

6.4 Multifunctional Bioactive Borate Glasses 83

6.5 Applications of Bioactive Borate Glasses in Orthopedics and Dental Regeneration 86

6.6 Soft Tissue Wound Healing 88

6.7 Tissue/Vessel Guidance 92

6.8 Drug Delivery 93

6.9 Commercial Product Design 94

6.10 Summary 96

7 Glass Ceramics 99Wolfram Holand

7.1 Glass Ceramics and Their Uses 99

7.2 Methods Used for the Controlled Crystallization of Glasses 101

7.3 A Glass Ceramic that Hardly Expands When Heated 103

7.4 High–Strength, Moldable Glass Ceramics for Dental Restoration 104

7.5 Glass Ceramics that are Moldable and Machinable 106

7.6 Outlook 106

8 Bioactive Glass and Glass Ceramic Coatings 109Enrica Verne

8.1 Introduction 109

8.2 Enameling 110

8.3 Glazing 114

8.4 Plasma Spraying 117

8.5 Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition 119

8.6 Pulsed Laser Deposition 119

8.7 Summary 120

9 Composites Containing Bioactive Glass 123Aldo R. Boccaccini and Qi–Zhi Chen

9.1 Introduction 123

9.2 Biodegradable Polymers 127

9.3 Composite Scaffolds Containing Bioactive Glass 131

9.4 Processing Technologies for Porous Bioactive Composites 133

9.5 Case Study: the PDLLA Bioglass Composite Scaffold System 138

9.6 Final Remarks 139

10 Inorganic Organic Sol Gel Hybrids 141Yuki Shirosaki, Akiyoshi Osaka, Kanji Tsuru, and Satoshi Hayakawa

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 Hybrids in Medicine and Why They Should Be Silica–Based 142

10.3 Self–Assembled Hybrid Films and Layers of Grafted Silanes 145

10.4 Sol Gel Hybrids 146

10.5 Ormosils 148

10.6 Polymer Choice and Property Control in Hybrids 151

10.7 Maintaining Bioactivity in Sol Gel Hybrids 154

10.8 Summary and Outlook 158

11 Dental Applications of Glasses 161Leena Hupa and Antti Yli–Urpo

11.1 Introduction 161

11.2 Structure of the Human Tooth 162

11.3 Glass Bioactivity and Teeth 163

11.4 Bioactive Glass in Dental Bone Regeneration 166

11.5 Treatment of Hypersensitive Teeth 168

11.6 Bioactive Glass Coating on Metal Implants 169

11.7 Antimicrobial Properties of Bioactive Glasses 172

11.8 Bioactive Glasses in Polymer Composites 173

11.9 Bioactive Glasses in Glass Ionomer Cements 174

11.10 Summary 175

12 Bioactive Glass as Synthetic Bone Grafts and Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 179Julian R. Jones

12.1 Introduction 179

12.2 Synthetic Bone Grafts and Regenerative Medicine 181

12.3 Design Criteria for an Ideal Synthetic Bone Graft 183

12.4 Bioglass and the Complication of Crystallisation During Sintering 184

12.5 Making Porous Glasses 185

12.6 The Future: Porous Hybrids 196

12.7 Bioactive Glasses and Tissue Engineering 200

12.8 Regulatory Issues 201

12.9 Summary 202

13 Glasses for Radiotherapy 205Delbert E. Day

13.1 Introduction 205

13.2 Glass Design and Synthesis 208

13.3 Non–Degradable or Bio–inert Glasses: Rare Earth Aluminosilicate Glasses 208

13.4 Biodegradable Glasses: Rare Earth Borate/Borosilicate Glasses 211

13.5 Design of Radioactive Glass Microspheres for In Vivo Applications 213

13.6 Treatment of Liver Cancer: Hepatocellular Carcinoma 217

13.7 Treatment of Kidney Cancer: Renal Cellarcinoma 222

13.8 Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: RadiationSynovectomy 223

13.9 Summary 227

References 228

Index 231

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Dr Julian Jones is a Senior Lecturer and Royal Academy of Engineering and EPSRC Research Fellow at Imperial College, London. He has 40 peer reviewed publications in leading journals in the field of Biomaterials and has co–edited a leading textbook. His work has been recognised by award of a prestigious Philip Leverhulme Prize in 2007, for excellence in Engineering; the Tissue and Cell Engineering Society (TCES) Early Investigator Award in 2008; and the Institute of Materials, Mining and Minerals (IOM
3) Silver Medal, for outstanding achievement in Materials Science and international promotion of the subject. His work has featured in the media with articles in the Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph and an interview on Radio 5 Live.

Dr Alexis Clare is Professor of Glass Science at the Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, NY, USA.

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