This book describes two modern technologies for capturing high–accuracy panoramic images and range data, namely the use of sensor–line cameras and laser range–finders. It provides mathematically accurate descriptions of the geometry of these sensing technologies and the necessary information required to apply them to 3D scene visualization or 3D representation. The book is divided into three parts:Â
Part One contains a full introduction to panoramic cameras and laser range–finders, including a discussion of calibration to aid preparation of equipment ready for use.
Part Two explains the concept of stereo panoramic imaging, looking at epipolar geometry, spatial sampling, image quality control and camera analysis and design.
Part Three looks at surface modelling and rendering based on panoramic input data, starting with the basics and taking the reader through to more advanced techniques such as the optimization of surface meshes and data fusion.
There is also an accompanying website containing high–resolution visual samples and animations which illustrate techniques discussed in the text.
Panoramic Imaging is primarily aimed at researchers and students in engineering or computer science involved in using imaging technologies for 3D visualization or 3D scene reconstruction. It is also of significant use as an advanced manual to practising engineers in panoramic imaging. In brief, the book is of value to all those interested in current developments in multimedia imaging technology.
Website and Exercises.
List of Symbols.
1.2 Panoramic Paintings
1.3 Panoramic or Wide–Angle Photographs
1.4 Digital Panoramas
1.5 Striving for Accuracy
1.7 Further Reading
2. Cameras and Sensors.
2.1 Camera Models
2.3 Sensor Models
2.4 Examples and Challenges
2.6 Further Reading
3. Spatial Alignments.
3.1 Mathematical Fundamentals
3.2 Central Projection:World into Image Plane
3.3 Classification of Panoramas
3.4 Coordinate Systems for Panoramas
3.5 General Projection Formula for Cylindrical Panorama
3.6 Rotating Cameras
3.7 Mappings between Different Image Surfaces
3.8 Laser Range–Finder
3.10 Further Reading
4. Epipolar Geometry.
4.1 General Epipolar Curve Equation
4.2 Constrained Poses of Cameras
4.4 Further Reading
5. Sensor Calibration.
5.2 Preprocesses for a Rotating Sensor–Line Camera
5.3 A Least–Square Error Optimization Calibration Procedure
5.4 Geometric Dependencies of R and w
5.5 Error Components in LRF Data
5.7 Further Reading
6. Spatial Sampling.
6.1 Stereo Panoramas
6.2 Sampling Structure
6.3 Spatial Resolution
6.4 Distances between Spatial Samples
6.6 Further Reading
7. Image Quality Control.
7.1 Two Requirements
7.3 Parameter Optimization
7.4 Error Analysis
7.6 Further Reading
8. Sensor Analysis and Design.
8.2 Scene Composition Analysis
8.3 Stereoacuity Analysis
8.4 Specification of Camera Parameters
8.6 Further Reading
9. 3D Meshing and Visualization.
9.1 3D Graphics
9.2 Surface Modeling
9.3 More Techniques for Dealing with Digital Surfaces
9.5 Further Reading
10. Data Fusion.
10.1 Determination of Camera Image Coordinates
10.2 Texture Mapping
10.3 High Resolution Orthophotos
10.4 Fusion of Panoramic Images and Airborne Data
10.6 Further Reading