Subsurface Sensing. Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering

  • ID: 2171780
  • Book
  • 600 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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An in–depth primer on the capabilities and limitations of various techniquesfor detecting buried objects

Buried object detection challenges are encountered in a variety of fields, from military applications to crime scene investigations. Buried objects can be detected via many techniques, most of which are specific to the type of object and its surrounding material. Subsurface Sensing provides a deep understanding of this multidisciplinary research area, presenting theory along with applications and existing technology.

The book begins with a review of buried object detection problems, as well as the most recent developments in sensor system hardware and software technologies and the need for advanced signal and imaging techniques. Covering both primary and auxiliary sensors, this book examines the systems based on electromagnetic, acoustic, infrared, and chemical methods, along with providing pros and cons such as operating principles, strengths, limitations, and feasibilities. Readers will gain the fundamentals necessary to:

  • Comprehend the most widely used sensors electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, and microwave tomography

  • Utilize sensor technologies that use biological and chemical methods, nuclear quadrupole resonance, and infrared and hyperspectral systems

  • Implement multi–sensor approaches in a wide range of applications to reach the best detection performance

Subsurface Sensing is essential reading for senior undergraduate/graduate students, practitioners, specialists, and academicians involved in the design and implementation of buried object detection sensors.

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Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1

Relevant Resources 4

References 4

2 Sensor Types 7

2.1 Introduction 7A. S. Turk

2.2 Ground–Penetrating Radar 8A. S. Turk

2.3 Electromagnetic Induction Detector 19A. S. Turk

2.4 Microwave Tomography Method 23A. A. Vertiy

2.5 Acoustic and Seismic Sensor 29A. K. Hocaoglu

2.6 Optical Detectors (Infrared and Hyperspectral) 36A. K. Hocaoglu

2.7 Biochemical Sensors 37M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

2.8 Nuclear Sensors 44A. N. Bilge

References 48

3 Ground–Penetrating Radar 55

3.1 Introduction 55A. S. Turk

3.2 GPR System Design 57A. S. Turk

3.3 GPR Hardware 64A. S. Turk, P. van Genderen, A. G. Yarovoy, and I. Nicolaescu

3.4 GPR Antennas 83A. S. Turk

3.5 Signal–Processing Techniques 96A. K. Hocaoglu

3.6 Imaging Algorithms 108C. Ozdemir

3.7 Numerical Modeling of GPR 122S. Aksoy, E. Basaran, and E. Ozturk

3.8 Detection and Classification Algorithms 146A. K. Hocaoglu

References 162

4 Electromagnetic Induction 175
H. Ewald

4.1 Introduction to Metal Detectors 175

4.2 Inductive Metal Detectors: Types of Probes, Excitation, and Coil Arrangements 179

4.3 Influence of the Soil Properties 196

4.4 Modeling Inductive Metal Detectors 202

4.5 Advanced Signal–Processing and Pattern Recognition Systems for Metal Detection 211

4.6 Conclusions 223

References 224

5 Microwave Tomography 227

5.1 Overview 227A. A. Vertiy

5.2 Electromagnetic Tomography 228F. Soldovieri and L. Crocco

5.3 Multifrequency Tomographic Method 255A. A. Vertiy and S. Gavrilov

5.4 Diffraction Multiview Tomographic Method in the Microwave and Millimeter–Wave Bands 310A. O. Salman, A. A. Vertiy, and S. Gavrilov

5.5 Nonlinear Inversion Algorithms 365L. Crocco and F. Soldovieri

References 377

6 Acoustic and Seismic Sensors 387
H. Asanuma

6.1 Overview 387

6.2 Operating Principles and Sensor Physics 389

6.3 Sensor Installation 400

6.4 Multicomponent Techniques 403

6.5 Limitations 408

6.6 Future Prospects 409

References 410

7 Auxiliary Sensors 413

7.1 Overview 413A. N. Bilge

7.2 Biological and Chemical Methods of Explosive Detection 414M. Harbeck and Z. Z. Ozturk

7.3 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance 429G. V. Mozzhukhin and B. Z. Rameev

7.4 X–ray, Gamma–ray, and Neutron Techniques 451A. N. Bilge

7.5 Electric Impedance Tomography 460A. S. Turk

7.6 Infrared and Hyperspectral Systems 465J. E. McFee and S. Achal

References 484

8 Multisensor Fusion 501
A. K. Hocaoglu

8.1 Preview 501

8.2 Data Association 503

8.3 Fusion Architectures 503

8.4 Probabilistic Sensor Fusion 505

8.5 Fuzzy Integrals for Information Fusion 513

8.6 Artificial Neural Networks 517

8.7 Summary 523

References 523

9 Geophysical Applications 525

9.1 Introduction 525E. C. Slob

9.2 Electromagnetic Properties of Soils 526E. C. Slob, S. Lambot, and E. Pettinelli

9.3 Hydrogeophysics 567S. Lambot, E. Pettinelli, S. S. Hubbard, E. C. Slob, E. Bloem, and V. E. A. Post

9.4 Contaminant Remediation 600S. S. Hubbard

9.5 Agricultural Geophysics 618B. Allred, J. Butnor, D. L. Corwin, R. Eigenberg, H. Farahani, K. H. Johnsen, S. Lambot, D. McInnis, E. Pettinelli, L. Samuelson, and B. Woodbury

9.6 Archaeology and Cultural Heritage 644E. Pettinelli, P. M. Barone, E. Mattei, A. Di Matteo, and F. Soldovieri

References 667

10 Remote Sensing and Security 689

10.1 Introduction 689A. A. Vertiy

10.2 Through–Wall Imaging and Detection 690A. A. Vertiy and S. Gavrilov

10.3 Millimeter–WaveBand Passive Imaging 721A. Denisov and A. A. Vertiy

References 740

11 Mine Detection 743

11.1 The Landmine Problem 743A. G. Yarovoy

11.2 Overview of Demining Techniques 745A. G. Yarovoy

11.3 Advanced Electromagnetic Induction Sensor 747A. G. Yarovoy and H. Ewald

11.4 Ground–Penetrating Radar 750A. G. Yarovoy

11.5 Electrooptical Sensors 753A. G. Yarovoy

11.6 Chemical Sensor Arrays for Mine Detection 755Z. Z. Ozturk and M. Harbeck

11.7 Sensor Fusion 757A. G. Yarovoy

11.8 ALIS: A Handheld Multisensor System for Landmine Detection 758M. Sato

11.9 Conclusions 769

References 769

12 Transportation and Civil Engineering 773

12.1 Introduction 773E. Proverbio

12.2 Proper Sensor Types 785E. Proverbio

12.3 Ground–Penetrating Radar for Road Characterization 795A. S. Turk and F. Soldovieri

12.4 Eddy Current Tomography for Three–Dimensional Imaging in Conductive Materials 818A. A. Vertiy

12.5 Ultrasonic Methods for Nondestructive Testing 824D. Cleland

12.6 Impact Echo 836E. Proverbio

12.7 Diagnostic Methods for Concrete and Bridges by Acoustic Emission 844J. Stryk and K. Pospisil

12.8 Vibroacoustic Monitoring of Concrete Structures 860S. Radkowski

12.9 Application of Nuclear Techniques for Civil Engineering 872A. N. Bilge

References 877

Index 885

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"I highly recommend the essential and definitive book Subsurface Sensing edited by Subsurface Sensing, to any students, engineers, practitioners, business leaders, and policy makers seeking a complete overview of the theory, technology, and applications of the critical field of subsurface sensing. This book is a must for anyone with an interest or need for subsurface detection in any area of engineering, resources, business, or scientific research." (Blog Business World, 18 December 2011)
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