Gravity–Driven Water Flow in Networks. Theory and Design

  • ID: 2171886
  • Book
  • 568 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive guide to the theory and application of gravity–driven water networks

The principal role gravity–driven water networks perform is a basic and vital one: deliver water from a higher elevation to a lower one using the force of gravity. It s a simple idea that is generally not so simple to execute.

Gravity–Driven Water Flow in Networks give engineers, designers, and technologists working in, or for developing countries and rural areas the technologies upper hand in analysis and design of gravity–fed water networks by bridging the gap between classical fluid mechanics and the applied, technology–based material found in other literature on these systems. In addition to placing the analysis of gravity–driven water networks on a sound fundamental footing, this insightful guide presents original design graphs and formulas, as well as computational algorithms, for the fundamental problem of analysis and design for single– and multiple–pipe gravity–driven water systems. Some of the valuable information found in this book includes:

  • Examples and an extensive cast study to illuminate how gravity–driven water flow systems are analyzed, engineered, designed, built, used, and maintained
  • More than one hundred illustrations and tables
  • Comprehensive coverage of pipe materials, pressure ratings, and dimensions
  • More than one hundred solved homework and example problems

By addressing the problems and solutions of creating a sound gravity–driven water pipe network, and how to maintain its functionality under a variety of environmental and geological pressures, Graven–Driven Water Flow in Networks tackles all the major issues currently driving innovation in the extremely challenging task of delivering an adequate water supply to the areas where it s needed most.

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List of Symbols.



1. Introduction.

1.1 Water Distribution Networks and their Design.

1.2 Feasibility for Gravity–Driven Water Networks.

1.3 The Elements.

1.4 Engineering Design.

1.5 Gravity–Driven Water Network Distinguishing Characteristics.

1.6 The Fundamental Problem.

1.7 A Brief Background.

1.8 Approach.

1.9 Key Features of the Book.


2. The Fundamental Principles.

2.1 The Problem Under Consideration.

2.2 The Energy Equation for Pipe Flow.

2.3 A Static Fluid.

2.4 Length Scales for Gravity–Driven Water Networks.

2.5 Mass Conservation.

2.6 Special Case of Reservoir at State 1.

2.7 Single– and Multiple–Pipe Networks Revisited.

2.8 The Role of the Momentum Equation.

2.9 Forced Flows.

2.10 Summary.


3. Pipe Materials and Dimensions.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Pipe Materials.

3.3 The Different Contexts for Pipe Diameter.

3.4 Pipe Size Systems.

3.5 Choosing and Appropriate Nominal Pipe Size.


4. Classes of Pipe Flow Problems and Solutions.

4.1 The Classes.

4.2 Pipe Flow Problem of Class 4.

4.3 The Problem Statement.

4.4 Setting Up the Problem.

4.5 Different Approaches to the Solution.

4.6 Summary.


5. Minor–Lossless Flow in a Single–Pipe Network.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Solution and Basic Results.

5.3 Limiting Case of a Vertical Pipe.

5.4 Design Graphs for Minor–Lossless Flow.

5.5 Comprehensive Design Plots for Gravity–Driven or Forced Flow.

5.6 The Forgiving Nature of Sizing Pipe.


6. "Natural Diameter" for a Pipe.

6.1 Motivation.

6.2 Equation of Local Static Pressure.

6.3 An Illustration: The Natural Diameter .

6.4 Commentary.

6.5 Local Static Pressure for a #D Network.

6.6 Graphical Interpretations.

6.7 Summary.


7. The Effects of Minor Losses.

7.1 Nature of the Minor Loss.

7.2 A Numerical Example.

7.3 The Case for Uniform D.

7.4 Importance Threshold for Minor Losses.

7.5 Fixed and Variable Minor Losses.


8. Examples for a Single–Pipe Network.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 A Straight Pipe.

8.3 Format of Mathcad Worksheets for Single–Pipe Network.

8.4 Specific Atmospheric Delivery Pressure.

8.5 Specified Non–atmospheric Delivery Pressure.

8.6 The Effect of Local Peaks in the Pipe.

8.7 A Network Designed from Site Survey Data.

8.8 Draining a Tank: A Transient Problem.

8.9 The Syphon.

9. Approximation for the Friction Factor.

9.1 The Problem.

9.2 A Recommendation.

9.3 Energy Equation: Friction Factor from Blasius Formula.

9.4 Forced Flows.

9.5 Summary.


10. Optimization.

10.1 Fundamentals.

10.2 The Optimal Fluid Network.

10.3 The Objective Function.

10.4 A General Optimization Method.

10.5 Optimization Using Mathcad.

10.6 Optimizing a Gravity–Driven Water Network.

10.7 Minimizing Entropy Generation.

10.8 Summary.


11. Multiple–Pipe Networks.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Background.

11.3 Our Approach.

11.4 A simple–branch Network.

11.5 Pipes of Different Diameters in Series.

11.6 Multiple–Branch Network.

11.7 Loop Network.

11.8 Large, Complex Networks.

11.9 Multiple–Pipe Networks with Forced Flow.

11.10 Perspective: A Conventional Approach.

11.11 Closure.


12. Micro–Hydroelectric Power Generation.

12.1 Background.

12.2 The System.

12.3 Approach.

12.4 Analysis.

12.5 Hybrid Hydroelectric Power and Water Network.

12.6 Summary.


13. Network Design.

13.1 The Design Process.

13.2 Overview.

13.3 Accurate Dimensional Data for the Site.

13.4 Calculating Design Information from Site–Survey Data.

13.5 Estimating Water Supply and Demand.

13.6 The Reservoir Tank.

13.7 The Tapstand.

13.8 Estimating Peak Water Flow Rates.

13.9 Source Development.

13.10 Hydrostatic Pressure Issues.

13.11The Break–Pressure Tank.

13.12 The Sedimentation Tank.

13.13 Flow Speed Limits.

13.14 Dissipation of Potential Energy.

13.15 Designing for Peak Demand: Pipe Oversizing.

13.16 Water Hammer.


14. Air Pockets in the Network.

14.1 The Problem.

14.2 The Physics of Air/Liquid Pipe Flows.

14.3 Flow in a Pipe with Local High Points.

14.4 Effect of Air Pockets on Flow.

14.5 An Example.

14.6 Summary.


15. Case Study.

15.1 Engineering Design: Science and Art.

15.2 Design Process Revisited.

15.3 The Case.


16. Exercises.


16.2 The Problems.

16.3 The Solutions.


Appendix A: List of Mathcad Worksheets.

Appendix B: Calculating Pipe Length & Mean Slope from GPS Data.

B.1 The Basics: Northing and Easting.

B.2 An Example.


Appendix C: Mathcad Tutorial.


Author Index.

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Gerard F. Jones is Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at Villanova University and former chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Before earning his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania in the early 1980s, he gained several years of experience in industry as a project engineer for a large oil company. After attaining his PhD, he was technical staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory for seven years, where he performed research on solar and geothermal technologies. He is a co–initiator of the service–learning effort at Villanova to engage engineering students in helping challenged communities in Central America and other locations around the world to provide clean water for their families. He has published over seventy–five papers and journal articles, and has led numerous conference proceedings. He is also a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
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