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Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers. Wiley-OSA Series on Optical Communication

  • ID: 2171975
  • Book
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Cutting–edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers

Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber–optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra–high speed optical networks.

Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers provides a comprehensible introduction to the complex nonlinear phenomena occurring within optical fibers. It is the only book to seamlessly explore the physical and technical aspects of nonlinear effects as well as their impacts and applications, particularly for signal processing, pulse generation, and amplification. The author explores the latest and most significant research results in the field of nonlinear fiber optics, such as:

  • Highly nonlinear and photonic fibers

  • Intrachannel nonlinear effects

  • Dissipative and dispersion–managed solitons

  • Potential applications of nonlinear effects in the area of optical signal processing

Chapter coverage includes the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, nonlinear phase modulation, self– and cross–phase modulation, polarization effects, four–wave mixing, stimulated Raman scattering, and stimulated Brillouin scattering. In addition, each chapter features a set of practice problems to reinforce retention of the material.

This resource provides valuable insights for readers who have a basic understanding of electromagnetic theory, including senior undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in MS and PhD degree programs, engineers and technicians involved with the fiber–optics industry, and researchers working in nonlinear fiber optics.

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1 Introduction.


2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation.

2.1 Wave Equation for Linear Media.

2.2 Electromagnetic Waves.

2.3 Energy Density and Flow.

2.4 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity.

2.5 Reflection and Transmission of Waves.

2.6 The Harmonic Oscillator Model.

2.7 The Refractive Index.

2.8 The Limit of Geometrical Optics.



3 Optical Fibers.

3.1 Geometric Optics Description.

3.2 Wave Propagation in Fibers.

3.3 Fiber Attenuation.

3.4 Modulation and Transfer of Information.

3.5 Chromatic Dispersion in Single–Mode Fibers.

3.6 Polarization–Mode Dispersion.



4 The Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation.

4.1 The Nonlinear Polarization.

4.2 The Nonlinear Refractive Index.

4.3 Importance of Nonlinear Effects in Fibers.

4.4 Derivation of the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation.

4.5 Soliton Solutions.

4.6 Numerical Solution of the NLSE.



5. Nonlinear Phase Modulation.

5.1 Self–Phase Modulation.

5.2 Cross–Phase Modulation.



6. Four–Wave Mixing.

6.1 Wave Mixing.

6.2 Mathematical Description.

6.3 Phase Matching.

6.4 Impact and Control of FWM.

6.5 Fiber Parametric Amplifiers.

6.6 Parametric Oscillators.

6.7 Nonlinear Phase Conjugation with FWM.

6.8 Squeezing and Photo–Pair Sources.



7 Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects.

7.1 Mathematical Description.

7.2 Intrachannel XPM.

7.3 Intrachannel FWM.

7.4 Control of Intrachannels Nonlinear Effects.



8 Soliton Lightwave Systems.

8.1 Soliton Properties.

8.2 Perturbation of Solitons.

8.3 Path–Averaged Solitons.

8.4 Soliton Transmission Control.

8.5 Dissipative Solitons.

8.6 Dispension–Managed Solitons.

8.7 WDM Soliton Systems.



9 Other Applications of Optical Solitons.

9.1 Soliton Fiber Lasers.

9.2 Pulse Compression.

9.3 Fibers Bragg Gratings.



10 Polarization Effects.

10.1 Coupled Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations.

10.2 Nonlinear Phase Shift.

10.3 Solitons in Fibers with Constant Birefringence.

10.4 Solitons in Fibers with Randomly Varying Birefringence.

10.5 PMD–Induced Soliton Pulse Broadening.

10.6 Dispersion–Managed Solitons and PMD.



11 Stimulated Raman Scattering.

11.1 Raman Scattering in the Harmonic Oscillator Model.

11.2 Raman Gain.

11.3 Raman Threshold.

11.4 Impact of Raman Scattering on Communication Systems.

11.5 Raman Amplification.

11.6 Raman Fiber Lasers.



12 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.

12.1 Light Scattering at Acoustic Waves.

12.2 The Coupled Equations for Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.

12.3 Brillouin Gain and Bandwidth.

12.4 Threshold of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.

12.5 SBS in Active Fibers.

12.6 Impact of SBS on Communication Systems.

12.7 Fiber Brillouin Amplifiers.

12.8 SBS Slow Light.

12.9 Fiber Brillouin Lasers.



13 Highly Nonlinear and Microstructured Fibers.

13.1 The Nonlinear Parameter in Silica Fibers.

13.2 Microstructured Fibers.

13.3 Non–Silica Fibers.

13.4 Soliton Self–Frequency Shift.

13.5 Four–Wave Mixing.

13.6 Supercontinuum Generation.



14 Optical Signal Processing.

14.1 Nonlinear Sources for WDM Systems.

14.2 Optical Regeneration.

14.3 Optical Pulse Train Generation. 

14.4 Wavelength Conversion.

14.5 All–Optical Switching.




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Mario F. Ferreira
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