Adaptive WCDMA. Theory and Practice

  • ID: 2172141
  • Book
  • 628 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Adaptive WCDMA covers the latest theoretical principals and practice of wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA), which is the basis for the physical layer of the third generation mobile communications systems. The focus of this volume is on implementation losses characterising the system degradation due to imperfect implementation and in turn how much of the performance promised by theory should be expected in practical solutions based on a given technology, which is not perfect but has finite cost and power consumption. It also provides a significant amount of material related to the further developments and improvements (beyond 3G) especially sections on adaptive WCDMA and modifications for implementations in ad hoc networks.

Based on the author′s experience in research and teaching courses in the field at both university and industry, this volume provides a simultaneous account of the theoretical principles of the technology and how and why these principles are used in the standards.

Written in an accessible and simple to read style the book serves as both an introductory level text and as a more advanced reference. It has a step by step approach which introduces the theory and the standard to those new to the topic yet will meet the expectations of readers from varying backgrounds and levels.

Topics covered include:

∗ Fundamentals: provides an initial explanation about the principles of WCDMA

∗ Power Control: including algorithms and performance analysis with a comprehensive literature review in the field of adaptive systems

∗ Chapters on Code Acquisition and tracking, channel estimation, multi–user detection: provide a comprehensive description of algorithms and tools for their analysis

∗ CDMA Network Design: discusses network capacity and employment issues together with coverage

∗ Adaptive CDMA Networks: covers adaptive algorithms for maximizing throughput in the network
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Preface xiii

1 Fundamentals 1

1.1 Adaptive Communications and the Book Layout 1

1.2 Spread Spectrum Fundamentals 10

1.3 Theory versus Practice 16

References 19

2 Pseudorandom sequences 23

2.1 Properties of Binary Shift Register Sequences 23

2.2 Properties of Binary Maximal–Length Sequence 26

2.3 Sets of Binary Sequences with Small Cross–Correlation Maximal Connected Sets of m–Sequences 30

2.4 Gold Sequences 30

2.5 Goldlike and Dual–BCH Sequences 33

2.6 Kasami Sequences 33

2.7 JPL Sequences 35

2.8 Kroncker Sequences 36

2.9 Walsh Functions 36

2.10 Optimum PN Sequences 37

2.11 Theory and Practice of PN Codes 39

2.12 PN Matched Filter 39

Symbols 40

References 41

3 Code acquisition 43

3.1 Optimum Solution 43

3.2 Practical Solutions 45

3.3 Code Acquisition Analysis 46

3.4 Code Acquisition in CDMA Network 51

3.5 Modeling of the Serial Code Acquisition Process for RAKE Receivers in CDMA Wireless Networks with Multipath and Transmitter Diversity 54

3.6 Two–Dimensional Code Acquisition in Spatially and Temporarily White Noise 57

3.7 Two–Dimensional Code Acquisition in Environments with Spatially Nonuniform Distribution of Interference 62

3.8 Cell Search in W–CDMA 71

References 75

4 Code tracking 79

4.1 Code–Tracking Loops 79

4.2 Code Tracking in Fading Channels 87

4.3 Signal Subspace–Based Channel Estimation for CDMA Systems 94

4.4 Turbo Processor Aided RAKE Receiver Synchronization for UMTS W–CDMA 102

Appendix: Linear and Matrix Algebra 114

References 120

5 Modulation and demodulation 123

5.1 Maximum Likelihood Estimation 123

5.2 Frequency–Error Detection 125

5.3 Carrier Phase Measurement: Nonoffset Signals 129

5.4 Performance of the Frequency and Phase Synchronizers 136

Symbols 145

References 145

6 Power control 147

6.1 Algorithms 147

6.2 Closed–Loop Power Control in DS–CDMA Cellular System: Problem Definition 150

6.3 Reference Power Level 156

6.4 Feedback Control Loop Analysis 159

6.5 Nonlinear Power Control 163

6.6 Fuzzy Logic Power Control 165

6.7 Imperfect Power Control in CDMA Systems 177

6.8 Adaptive Communications 182

Symbols 185

References 186

7 Interference suppression and CDMA overlay 191

7.1 Narrowband Interference Suppression 191

7.2 Generalization of Narrowband Interference Suppression 194

7.3 Recursive Solutions for the Filter Coefficients 198

7.4 The Learning Curve and its Time Constant 203

7.5 Practical Applications: CDMA Network Overlay 210

References 214

8 CDMA network 217

8.1 CDMA Network Capacity 217

8.2 Cellular CDMA Network 220

8.3 Impact of Imperfect Power Control 228

8.4 Channel Modeling in CDMA Networks 235

8.5 RAKE Receiver 249

8.6 CDMA Cellular System with Adaptive Interference Cancellation 254

8.7 Diversity Handover in DS–CDMA Cellular Systems 258

Symbols 267

References 270

9 CDMA network design 271

9.1 Basic System Design Philosophy 271

9.2 CDMA Network Planning 278

9.3 Spectral Efficiency of WCDMA 289

Symbols 292

References 292

10 Resource management and access control 295

10.1 Power Control and Resource Management for a Multimedia CDMA Wireless System 295

10.2 Access Control of Data in Integrated Voice/Data in CDMA Systems 300

10.3 Delta Modulation Based Prediction for Access Control in Integrated Voice/Data CDMA Systems 308

10.4 Mixed Voice/Data Transmission using PRMA Protocol 313

10.5 Fuzzy/Neural Congestion Control 320

10.6 Adaptive Traffic Admission Based on Kalman Filter 331

10.7 Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks 343

10.8 A Measurement–Based Prioritization Scheme for Handovers 354

Symbols 364

References 365

11 CDMA packet radio networks 369

11.1 Dual–Class CDMA System 369

11.2 Access Control for Wireless Multicode CDMA Systems 375

11.3 Reservation–Code Multiple Access 379

11.4 MAC Protocol for a Cellular Packet CDMA with Differentiated QoS 386

11.5 CDMA ALOHA Network Using p–Persistent CSMA/CD Protocol 390

11.6 Implementation Losses in MAC Protocols in Wireless CDMA Networks 397

11.7 Radio Resource Management in Wireless IP Networks and Differentiated Services 404

References 418

12 Adaptive CDMA networks 421

12.1 Bit Rate/Space Adaptive CDMA Network 421

12.2 MAC Layer Packet Length Adaptive CDMA Radio Networks 433

Appendix 451

References 452

13 Multiuser CDMA receivers 455

13.1 Optimal Receiver 455

13.2 Linear Multiuser CDMA Detectors 460

13.3 Multistage Detection in Asynchronous CDMA 462

13.4 Noncoherent Detector 465

13.5 Multiuser Detection in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading Channel 470

13.6 Multiuser Detection in Frequency–Selective Rayleigh Fading Channel 476

Symbols 487

References 488

14 MMSE multiuser detectors 491

14.1 Minimum Mean–Square Error (MMSE) Linear Multiuser Detection 491

14.2 System Model in Multipath Fading Channel 494

14.3 MMSE Detector Structures 497

14.4 Spatial Processing 500

14.5 Single–User LMMSE Receivers for Frequency–Selective Fading Channels 503

Symbols 516

References 516

15 Wideband CDMA network sensitivity 519

15.1 Theory and Practice of Multiuser Detection 519

15.2 System Model 521

15.3 Capacity Losses 527

15.4 Near Far Self–Resistant CDMA Wireless Network 537

Appendix 1 Coherent Detection of (mM –CDMA) 549

Appendix 2 Coherent Detection of (amM –CDMA) 553

Appendix 3 Noncoherent Detection of (mM –CDMA) 556

Appendix 4 Noncoherent Detection of (amM –CDMA) 559

References 562

16 Standards 565

16.1 IS 95 Standard 565

16.2 IS–95B CDMA 575

16.3 CDMA2000 575

16.4 IS–665 W–CDMA 581

References 588

17 UMTS standard: WCDMA/FDD Layer 1 591

17.1 Transport Channels and Physical Channels (FDD) 591

17.2 Multiplexing, Channel Coding and Interleaving 598

17.3 Spreading and Modulation 600

17.4 Physical Layer Procedures (FDD) 604

References 607

Index 609

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Savo G. Glisic
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