This series of books provides coverage of all of the major analytical techniques and their application in the most important areas of physical, life and materials science. Each text is presented in an open learning/distance learning style, in which the learning objectives are clearly identified. The reader′s understanding of the material is constantly evaluated by the use of self–assessment and discussion questions. Series Editor: David J. Ando
INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS
Infrared spectroscopy is one of the most important and widely used analytical techniques available to scientists working in a whole range of fields. This book aims to provide an introduction to those needing to use infrared spectroscopy for the first time, explaining the fundamental aspects of this technique, how to obtain a spectrum and how to analyse infrared data covering a wide range of applications.
This text contains chapters covering the following aspects:
- The background theory of infrared spectroscopy.
- Instrumentation and sampling techniques.
- Spectral analysis.
- Organic molecules.
- Inorganic molecules.
- Biological applications.
- Industrial applications.
Suitable questions and problems are included in each chapter to assist in the analysis and interpretation of representative infrared spectra.
This book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate chemistry students, as well as researchers in both academia and industry, and should provide a valuable addition to student coursework material and to those companies providing in–house training in the field of infrared spectroscopy.
Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.
About the Author.
1.1 Electromagnetic Radiation.
1.2 Infrared Absorptions.
1.3 Normal Modes of Vibration.
1.4 Complicating Factors.
1.4.1 Overtone and Combination Bands.
1.4.2 Fermi Resonance.
1.4.4 Vibration Rotation Bands.
2. Experimental Methods.
2.2 Dispersive Infrared Spectrometers.
2.3 Fourier–Transform Infrared Spectrometers.
2.3.1 Michelson Interferometers.
2.3.2 Sources and Detectors.
2.3.4 Moving Mirrors.
2.4 Transmission Methods.
2.4.1 Liquids and Solutions.
2.4.4 Pathlength Calibration.
2.5 Reflectance Methods.
2.5.1 Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy.
2.5.2 Specular Reflectance Spectroscopy.
2.5.3 Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy.
2.5.4 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.
2.6 Microsampling Methods.
2.7 Chromatography Infrared Spectroscopy.
2.8 Thermal Analysis Infrared Spectroscopy.
2.9 Other Techniques.
3. Spectral Analysis.
3.2 Group Frequencies.
3.2.1 Mid–Infrared Region.
3.2.2 Near–Infrared Region.
3.2.3 Far–Infrared Region.
3.4 Hydrogen Bonding.
3.5 Spectrum Manipulation.
3.5.1 Baseline Correction.
3.5.3 Difference Spectra.
3.7 Simple Quantitative Analysis.
3.7.1 Analysis of Liquid Samples.
3.7.2 Analysis of Solid Samples.
3.8 Multi–Component Analysis.
3.9 Calibration Methods.
4. Organic Molecules.
4.2 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons.
4.3 Aromatic Compounds.
4.4 Oxygen–Containing Compounds.
4.4.1 Alcohols and Phenols.
4.4.3 Aldehydes and Ketones.
4.4.5 Carboxylic Acids and Anhydrides.
4.5 Nitrogen–Containing Compounds.
4.6 Halogen–Containing Compounds.
4.7 Heterocyclic Compounds.
4.8 Boron Compounds.
4.9 Silicon Compounds.
4.10 Phosphorus Compounds.
4.11 Sulfur Compounds.
4.12 Near–Infrared Spectra.
5. Inorganic Molecules.
5.2 General Considerations.
5.3 Normal Modes of Vibration.
5.4 Coordination Compounds.
5.6 Metal Carbonyls.
5.7 Organometallic Compounds.
7. Biological Applications.
7.3 Proteins and Peptides.
7.4 Nucleic Acids.
7.5 Disease Diagnosis.
7.6 Microbial Cells.
7.8 Clinical Chemistry.
8. Industrial and Environmental Applications.
8.2 Pharmaceutical Applications.
8.3 Food Science.
8.4 Agricultural Applications.
8.5 Pulp and Paper Industries.
8.6 Paint Industry.
8.7 Environmental Applications.
Responses to Self–Assessment Questions.
Glossary of Terms.
SI Units and Physical Constants.