∗ A historical overview of myocardial revascularization (including the Vineberg procedure and the more recent TMR/PMR procedures)
∗ Biological responses and mechanisms of action in myocardial revascularization using mechanical, laser, ultrasound, and cryoenergy
∗ Current technology for the percutaneous method of the procedure
∗ Descriptions of other novel approaches including percutaneous in situ coronary venous arterialization
∗ Discussion of results from preliminary and advanced TMR/PMR in canine and human procedures
∗ Examination of various catheter navigation systems and potential adjunct gene therapies
∗ Myocyte transplantation to replenish the depleted myocardium
∗ Insights into the economics of these novel percutaneous techniques
PART I: BACKGROUND OF MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION TECHNIQUES.
Myocardial Revascularization: The Role of the Vineberg Operation and Related Procedures (O. Topaz).
Historical Perspectives and Development of Transmyocardial Revascularization (M. Cayton & M. Mirhoseini).
Clinical Efficacy and Experience with Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMR) (K. Horvath).
PART II: BIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION.
Angiogenesis vs. Arteriogenesis: Can Different Transmyocardial Revascularization Approaches be Distinguished (R. Virmani, et al.).
Revascularization versus Denervation: What are the Mechanisms of Symptom Relief? (G. Hughes & J. Lowe).
Potential Mechanisms of Myocardial Revascularization Techniques: Channels, Functional and Structural Remodeling, Angiogenesis, Denervation, or Placebo (E. Hage–Korban, et al.).
Biosense NOGA(TM): Percutaneous Laser Myocardial Revascularization and Gene Transfer (M. Foster, et al.).
PART III: CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR PERCUTANEOUS MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION.
Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization (PMR): Indications and Clinical Experience (J. Eisenberg, et al.).
Novel Revascularization Strategies: PMR, TMR and Percutaneous in situ Coronary Venous Arterialization (W. Abernethy, et al.).
PART IV: OTHER METHODS OF MYOCARDINAL REVASCULARIZATION.
Transmyocardial and Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization: Nonlaser Approaches (B. Kantor, et al.).
Cryoenergy–Induced Neovascularization for Myocardial Reperfusion: A Novel Alternative to Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization (R. Gallo & M. Dubuc).
Ultrasonic Surgery: Mechanism of Action and Implications for Transmyocardial Revascularization (R. Verdaasdonk, et al.).
Left Ventricular Electromechanical Mapping As a Diagnostic Method (E. Perin, et al.).
Percutaneous Gene Therapy for Myocardial Angiogenesis (S. Werns).
Myocardial Angiogenesis: Clinical Trial Results (T. Henry & C. Boisjolie).
The Coronary Veins as an Alternative Access for Gene Transfer and Angiogenesis by Selective Pressure–Regulated Retroperfusion (P. Boekstegers, et al.).
Percutaneous Intrapericardial Drug Delivery for Myocardial Angiogenesis (S. Waxman).
Cell Transplantation: Its Application in the Treatment of Cardiac Dysfunction and its Effect on Angiogenesis (M. Yao & R. Kloner).
Percutaneous Myocardial Revascularization: Financial Potential And Market Acceptance (T. Woodward, et al.).