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Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2172728
  • Book
  • 1080 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Thoroughly updated with the latest computer–aided methods

Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, Second Edition offers a thorough revision of this successful book on microwave circuit design. The updates represent a shift in interest over a decade since the first edition was published, away from applications for military modules and towards high–volume, commercial wireless applications. Taking a practical approach, the authors emphasize commercial applications in telecommunications and provide a multitude of real–world examples.

All chapters from the first edition have been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the most sophisticated modern technology and the latest applications, including computer–aided methods for linear and nonlinear designs used in the production of microwave amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers. All aspects of transistors are covered, from their intrinsic properties to circuit design techniques for maximizing their performance in communications and radar systems. Readers familiar with the previous edition will note several new and important additions, including:

  • Software tools for the design of microwave circuits. Student versions of the relevant software can be downloaded free of charge from Ansoft Corporation at [external URL]
  • A separate chapter on two–port networks and their characteristics
  • Four new chapters on RF/microwave systems, lumped and distributed elements, microwave filters, and RF switches and attenuators
  • An expanded oscillator chapter with new coverage of BiCMOS and SiGe HBT oscillators

The three authors of this publication, all IEEE Fellows, have many decades of hands–on experience and are all recognized as industry leaders. In addition, the authors have enlisted contributions from several noted experts from industry and academia. Complementing the top–notch design techniques, special features are provided in each chapter to assist readers in their research efforts:

  • References and bibliographies that provide further avenues of investigation into specific topics
  • Problem sets that test readers′ understanding of key concepts and design techniques

This is an essential reference for all designers and researchers who need to know how to apply the latest techniques in microwave integrated circuit design. Distinguished by its comprehensive coverage and clear presentation, Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, Second Edition is the premier reference tool for today′s and tomorrow′s electrical engineers.

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FOREWORD xv
ROBERT A. PUCEL

PREFACE xix

1 RF MICROWAVE SYSTEMS 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Maxwell s Equations 10

1.3 RF Wireless Microwave Millimeter–Wave Applications 12

1.4 Frequency Bands, Modes, and Waveforms of Operation 17

1.5 Analog and Digital Requirements 18

1.6 Elementary Definitions 20

1.7 Basic RF Transmitters and Receivers 26

1.8 Modern CAD for Nonlinear Circuit Analysis 29

1.9 Dynamic Load Line 30

References 31

Bibliography 32

Problems 33

2 LUMPED AND DISTRIBUTED ELEMENTS 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Transition from RF to Microwave Circuits 35

2.3 Parasitic Effects on Lumped Elements 38

2.4 Distributed Elements 45

2.5 Hybrid Element: Helical Coil 46

References 47

Bibliography 49

Problems 50

3 ACTIVE DEVICES 51

3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Diodes 53

3.3 Microwave Transistors 103

3.4 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor 144

3.5 Microwave FET 150

References 183

Bibliography 187

Problems 190

4 TWO–PORT NETWORKS 192

4.1 Introduction 192

4.2 Two–Port Parameters 193

4.3 S Parameters 197

4.4 S Parameters from SPICE Analysis 198

4.5 Stability 199

4.6 Power Gains, Voltage Gain, and Current Gain 202

4.7 Three–Ports 210

4.8 Derivation of Transducer Power Gain 213

4.9 Differential S Parameters 215

4.10 Twisted–Wire Pair Lines 218

4.11 Low–Noise and High–Power Amplifier Design 221

4.12 Low–Noise Amplifier Design Examples 224

References 233

Bibliography 234

Problems 234

5 IMPEDANCE MATCHING 241

5.1 Introduction 241

5.2 Smith Charts and Matching 241

5.3 Impedance Matching Networks 249

5.4 Single–Element Matching 250

5.5 Two–Element Matching 251

5.6 Matching Networks Using Lumped Elements 252

5.7 Matching Networks Using Distributed Elements 253

5.8 Bandwidth Constraints for Matching Networks 257

References 267

Bibliography 268

Problems 268

6 MICROWAVE FILTERS 273

6.1 Introduction 273

6.2 Low–Pass Prototype Filter Design 274

6.3 Transformations 279

6.4 Transmission Line Filters 291

6.5 Exact Designs and CAD Tools 305

6.6 Real–Life Filters 305

References  309

Bibliography 309

Problems 310

7 NOISE IN LINEAR TWO–PORTS 311

7.1 Introduction 311

7.2 Signal–to–Noise Ratio 313

7.3 Noise Figure Measurements 315

7.4 Noise Parameters and Noise Correlation Matrix 317

7.5 Noisy Two–Port Description 326

7.6 Noise Figure of Cascaded Networks 332

7.7 Influence of External Parasitic Elements 334

7.8 Noise Circles 338

7.9 Noise Correlation in Linear Two–Ports Using Correlation Matrices 340

7.10 Noise Figure Test Equipment 343

7.11 How to Determine Noise Parameters 345

7.12 Calculation of Noise Properties of Bipolar and FETs 346

7.13 Bipolar Transistor Noise Model in T Configuration 359

7.14 The GaAs FET Noise Model 367

References 381

Bibliography 383

Problems 385

8 SMALL– AND LARGE–SIGNAL AMPLIFIER DESIGN 388

8.1 Introduction 388

8.2 Single–Stage Amplifier Design 390

8.3 Frequency Multipliers 416

8.4 Design Example of 1.9–GHz PCS and 2.1–GHz W–CDMA Amplifiers 420

8.5 Stability Analysis and Limitations 422

References 426

Bibliography 429

Problems 431

9 POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN 433

9.1 Introduction 433

9.2 Device Modeling and Characterization 434

9.3 Optimum Loading 464

9.4 Single–Stage Power Amplifier Design 466

9.5 Multistage Design 472

9.6 Power–Distributed Amplifiers 480

9.7 Class of Operation 500

9.8 Power Amplifier Stability 509

9.9 Amplifier Linearization Methods 512

References 514

Bibliography 518

Problems 519

10 OSCILLATOR DESIGN 520

10.1 Introduction 520

10.2 Compressed Smith Chart 525

10.3 Series or Parallel Resonance 526

10.4 Resonators 528

10.5 Two–Port Oscillator Design 544

10.6 Negative Resistance from Transistor Model 550

10.7 Oscillator Q and Output Power 559

10.8 Noise in Oscillators: Linear Approach 563

10.9 Analytic Approach to Optimum Oscillator Design Using S Parameters  591

10.10 Nonlinear Active Models for Oscillators  605

10.11 Oscillator Design Using Nonlinear Cad Tools  617

10.12 Microwave Oscillators Performance  631

10.13 Design of an Oscillator Using Large–Signal Y Parameters  634

10.14 Example for Large–Signal Design Based on Bessel Functions  637

10.15 Design Example for Best Phase Noise and Good Output Power  641

10.16 CAD Solution for Calculating Phase Noise in Oscillators  650

10.17 Validation Circuits  666

10.18 Analytical Approach for Designing Efficient Microwave FET and Bipolar Oscillators (Optimum Power)  674

References  703

Bibliography  707

Problems  718

11 MICROWAVE MIXER DESIGN 724

11.1 Introduction  724

11.2 Diode Mixer Theory  728

11.3 Single–Diode Mixers  743

11.4 Single–Balanced Mixers  753

11.5 Double–Balanced Mixers  769

11.6 FET Mixer Theory  794

11.7 Balanced FET Mixers  818

11.8 Special Mixer Circuits  832

11.9 Using Modern CAD Tools  843

11.10 Mixer Noise  850

References  863

Bibliography  866

Problems  867

12 RF SWITCHES AND ATTENUATORS 869

12.1 pin Diodes  869

12.2 pin Diode Switches  872

12.3 pin Diode Attenuators  881

12.4 FET Switches  886

References  889

Bibliography  890

13 MICROWAVE COMPUTER–AIDED WORKSTATIONS FOR MMIC REQUIREMENTS 891

13.1 Introduction  891

13.2 Gallium Arsenide MMIC Foundries: Role of CAD  897

13.3 Yield–Driven Design  901

13.4 Designing Nonlinear Circuits Using the Harmonic Balance Method  905

13.5 Programmable Microwave Tuning System  914

13.6 Introduction to MMIC Considering Layout Effects  920

13.7 GaAs MMIC Layout Software  927

13.8 Practical Design Example  930

13.9 CAD Applications  935

Bibliography  956

Appendix A BIP: GUMMEL POON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR MODEL 959

Appendix B LEVEL 3 MOSFET 966

Appendix C NOISE PARAMETERS OF GaAs MESFETs 969

Appendix D DERIVATIONS FOR UNILATERAL GAIN SECTION 982

Appendix E VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF TWO–TONE

INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS 985

Appendix F PASSIVE MICROWAVE ELEMENTS 1005

INDEX 1027

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George D. Vendelin
Anthony M. Pavio
Ulrich L. Rohde
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