Service providers across the globe are responding to copper wire bandwidth limits in an effort to alleviate the so–called first/last mile bottleneck of Internet infrastructures. This comprehensive work covers the architectures and the enabling technologies of broadband optical access networks and outlines all current and future competing technologies. Rich illustrations clarify important topics as the book explores both current passive optical network standards and next–generation broadband optical access networks.
This text presents the evolution of optical access networks including reach extension, bandwidth enhancement, and service overlay and discusses the convergence of optical and wireless technologies for broadband access. It explains different design approaches to broadband optical access networks outlining the economical and technological boundaries and discusses new national network initiatives, particularly with respect to access networks. The book investigates hybrid optical and wireless networks for key technologies, integrated routing algorithms, and traffic engineering.
Broadband Optical Access Networks is an invaluable reference for upper–level undergraduate students and graduate students studying telecommunications, optical networking, photonics, wireless communications, and/or networking/computer science. It is also an optimal text for researchers, electrical engineers, and managers in the telecommunications industry.
1 BROADBAND ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES: AN OVERVIEW.
1.1 Communication Networks.
1.2 Access Technologies.
1.2.1 Last–Mile Bottleneck.
1.2.2 Access Technologies Compared.
1.3 Digital Subscriber Line.
1.3.1 DSL Standards.
1.3.2 Modulation Methods.
1.3.3 Voice over DSL.
1.4 Hybrid Fiber Coax.
1.4.1 Cable Modem.
1.5 Optical Access Networks.
1.5.1 Passive Optical Networks.
1.5.2 PON Standard Development.
1.5.3 WDM PONs.
1.5.4 Other Types of Optical Access Networks.
1.6 Broadband over Power Lines.
1.6.1 Power–Line Communications.
1.6.2 BPL Modem.
1.6.3 Challenges in BPL.
1.7 Wireless Access Technologies.
1.7.1 Wi–Fi Mesh Networks.
1.7.2 WiMAX Access Networks.
1.7.3 Cellular Networks.
1.7.4 Satellite Systems.
1.7.5 LMDS and MMDS Systems.
1.8 Broadband Services and Emerging Technologies.
1.8.1 Broadband Access Services.
1.8.2 Emerging Technologies.
2 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS: COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS.
2.1 Optical Fibers.
2.1.1 Fiber Structure.
2.1.2 Fiber Mode.
2.1.3 Fiber Loss.
2.1.4 Fiber Dispersion.
2.1.5 Nonlinear Effects.
2.1.6 Light–Wave Propagation in Optical Fibers.
2.2 Optical Transmitters.
2.2.1 Semiconductor Lasers.
2.2.2 Optical Modulators.
2.2.3 Transmitter Design.
2.3 Optical Receivers.
2.3.2 Optical Receiver Design.
2.4 Optical Amplifiers.
2.4.1 Rare–Earth–Doped Fiber Amplifiers.
2.4.2 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers.
2.4.3 Raman Amplifiers.
2.5 Passive Optical Components.
2.5.1 Directional Couplers.
2.5.2 Optical Filters.
2.6 System Design and Analysis.
2.6.1 Receiver Sensitivity.
2.6.2 Power Budget.
2.6.3 Dispersion Limit.
2.7 Optical Transceiver Design for TDM PONs.
2.7.1 Burst–Mode Optical Transmission.
2.7.2 Colorless ONUs.
3 PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORKS: ARCHITECTURES AND PROTOCOLS.
3.1 PON Architectures.
3.1.1 Network Dimensioning and Bandwidth.
3.1.2 Power Budget.
3.1.3 Burst–Mode Operation.
3.1.4 PON Packet Format and Encapsulation.
3.1.5 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation, Ranging, and Discovery.
3.1.6 Reliability and Security Concerns.
3.2 PON Standards History and Deployment.
3.2.1 Brief Developmental History.
3.2.2 FTTx Deployments.
3.3 Broadband PON.
3.3.1 BPON Architecture.
3.3.2 BPON Protocol and Service.
3.3.3 BPON Transmission Convergence Layer.
3.3.4 BPON Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation.
3.3.5 Other ITU–T G.983.x Recommendations.
3.4 Gigabit–Capable PON.
3.4.1 GPON Physical Medium Dependent Layer.
3.4.2 GPON Transmission Convergence Layer.
3.4.3 Recent G.984 Series Standards, Revisions, and Amendments.
3.5 Ethernet PON.
3.5.1 EPON Architecture.
3.5.2 EPON Point–to–Multipoint MAC Control.
3.5.3 Open Implementations in EPON.
3.5.4 Unresolved Security Weaknesses.
3.6 IEEE 802.av–2009 10GEPON Standard.
3.6.1 10GEPON PMD Architecture.
3.6.2 10GEPON MAC Modifications.
3.6.3 10GEPON Coexistence Options.
3.7 Next–Generation Optical Access System Development in the Standards.
3.7.1 FSAN NGA Road Map.
3.7.2 Energy Efficiency.
3.7.3 Other Worldwide Development.
4 NEXT–GENERATION BROADBAND OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS.
4.1 TDM–PON Evolution.
4.1.1 EPON Bandwidth Enhancements.
4.1.2 GPON Bandwidth Enhancements.
4.1.3 Line Rate Enhancements Research.
4.2 WDM–PON Components and Network Architectures.
4.2.1 Colorless ONUs.
4.2.2 Tunable Lasers and Receivers.
4.2.3 Spectrum–Sliced Broadband Light Sources.
4.2.4 Injection–Locked FP Lasers.
4.2.5 Centralized Light Sources with RSOAs.
4.2.6 Multimode Fiber.
4.3 Hybrid TDM/WDM–PON.
4.3.1 TDM–PON to WDM–PON Evolution.
4.3.2 Hybrid Tree Topology Evolution.
4.3.3 Tree to Ring Topology Evolution.
4.4 WDM–PON Protocols and Scheduling Algorithms.
4.4.1 MAC Protocols.
4.4.2 Scheduling Algorithms.
5 HYBRID OPTICAL WIRELESS ACCESS NETWORKS.
5.1 Wireless Access Technologies.
5.1.1 IEEE 802.16 WiMAX.
5.1.2 Wireless Mesh Networks.
5.2 Hybrid Optical Wireless Access Network Architecture.
5.2.1 Leveraging TDM–PON for Smooth Upgrade of Hierarchical Wireless Access Networks.
5.2.2 Upgrading Path.
5.2.3 Reconfigurable Optical Backhaul Architecture.
5.3 Integrated Routing Algorithm for Hybrid Access Networks.
5.3.1 Simulation Results and Performance Analysis.
Ning Cheng, PhD, is a senior engineer at a major technology company as well as the author of more than sixty technical papers in electrical engineering. He served as a postdoctoral research fellow at Stanford University.
Wei–Tao Shaw, PhD, is currently a member of the technical staff at Infinera Inc. During his time at Stanford University, he worked in the Photonics and Networking Research Lab where he focused on optical access networks and subsystems, and hybrid optical and wireless access networks.
David Gutierrez, PhD, currently advises the Colombian Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications. While at Stanford University, his research focused on next–generation access networks. His work has been published in many scientific journals and conference proceedings.
Shing–Wa Wong, PhD, graduated with a degree in electrical engineering from Stanford University. He has published more than twenty–five IEEE journal and conference publications and obtained three patents in next–generation broadband networks.