Citrus essential oils are the most popular among all natural essential oils. Commercially, the oils are used to flavor foods and to scent toiletries, cosmetics, and perfumes. Recently, researchers have also discovered that citrus essential oils have important chemopreventive properties.
Written by a team of international experts in citrus essential oil research, this book reviews the scientific concepts, basic and advanced analytical methods, and diverse properties of these oils. Readers will discover a broad range of new techniques as well as new and emerging industrial and health care applications. Following an introductory chapter, the book covers such topics as:
Techniques for oil extraction, including distillation, microwave, solvent, and solid–phase microextraction
Sensory and compositional analysis
Enantiomeric and stable isotope analysis
Gas chromatography–olfactometry and aroma–active components in citrus essential oils
Functional properties, including antioxidative, chemopreventive, and antimicrobial properties
Applications in aromatherapy for health and well–being
With contributions from researchers in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America, this publication offers a unique international perspective on citrus essential oil research and its applications. References in each chapter support further in–depth investigation of individual topics.
Citrus Essential Oils is written for professionals and students working in the food sciences, flavor chemistry, and aromatherapy. Its coverage of the latest research findings, techniques, and applications sets the foundation for new discoveries and a broad range of new uses of citrus essential oils.
1 Introduction (Masayoshi Sawamura).
2 Techniques for Oil Extraction (Farid Chemat).
2.1 Steam and Hydrodistillation (Farid Chemat).
2.2 Solvent– and Water–Free Microwave Extraction (Farid Chemat).
2.3 Ultrasound–Accelerated Solvent Extraction (Farid Chemat).
2.4 Solid–Phase Microextraction (Masayoshi Sawamrua).
2.5 Cold Pressing (Masayoshi Sawamura).
3 Compositional Analysis (Masayoshi Sawamura).
3.1 Analytical Method: GC–FID, GC–MS and GC × GC (Nguyen Thi Minh–Tu).
3.2 Africa (Simon Muhoho Njoroge and Masayoshi Sawamura).
3.3 America (Nguyen Thi Thao).
China (Masayoshi Sawamura and Xiaolin Yu).
Indonesia (C. Hanny Wijaya).
Japan (Nguyen Thi Lan–Phi and Masayoshi Sawamura).
Korea (Hee–Sun Song).
Viet Nam (Nguyen Thi Lan–Phi).
3.5 Europe (Marco Poiana).
4 Enantiomeric and Stable Isotope Analysis (Nguyen Thi Thao).
4.1 Enantiomeric Analysis (Nguyen Thi Thao).
4.2 Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (Nguyen Thi Thao and Atsushi Satake).
4.3 Application in Authenticity Control of Essential Oil from Different Origins (Nguyen Thi Thao).
5 Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry and Aroma–Active Components in Citrus Essential Oils (Nguyen Thi Lan–Phi).
5.1 Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry.
5.2 Flavor and Odor/Aroma Key/Impact Compounds in Citrus Essential Oils.
5.3 Functional Groups Related to Citrus Flavor Activity.
6 Functional Properties (Hyang–Sook Choi).
6.1 Antioxidative Activity (Hyang–Sook Choi).
6.2 Inhibitory Formation of Carcinogen (Masayoshi Sawamura).
6.3 Antimicrobiology (Hee–Sun Song).
7 Aromatherapy (Chizu Kumagai).
7.1 Application for Therapeutic Effect (Chizu Kumagai).
7.2 Ageing of Essential Oils (Masayoshi Sawamura and U–Sun Son).
8 Industrial View (Hisakatsu Iwabuchi).
8.1 Formulation of Essential Oils for Processed Foods: Production, Trend, and Microcapsulation (Chiyoki Yukawa and Masaki Shimada).
8.2 Eco–Conscious System of Oil Extraction from Citrus Peel Wastes (Takehiro Kashiwagi and Masayoshi Sawamura).