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Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Environment. Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 2174006
  • Book
  • October 2011
  • 560 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Written by authorities from various related specialties, this book presents the most complete treatment possible of the conditions responsible for water- and sanitation-related diseases, the pathogens and their biology, morbidity and mortality resulting from lack of safe water and sanitation, distribution of these diseases, and the conditions that must be met to reduce or eradicate them. Preventive measures and solutions are presented throughout. This book is an essential resource for all graduate students, postdoctoral scholars, and professionals in infectious disease, public health and medicine, chemical and environmental engineering, and international affairs.
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Preface ix

Contributors xi

Introduction xv
Janine M. H. Selendy and Jens Aargaard-Hansen

Section I Defining The Problem 1

1 Tackling the Water Crisis: A Continuing Need to Address Spatial and Social Equity 3
Jay Graham

2 Sanitation and Hygiene: Taking Stock After Three Decades 17
Jay Graham

3 Water and Health: The Demographic Background 29
Robert Wyman

4 Water and War: Averting Armed Conflict and Protecting Human Rights 41
Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel

Section II Water And Sanitation-Related Diseases 45

5 Infectious Diarrhea 47
Sean Fitzwater, Aruna Chandran, Margaret Kosek, and Mathuram Santosham

6 Malnutrition and Undernutrition 71
Jeffrey K. Griffiths

7 Soil-Transmitted Helminths: Ascaris, Trichuris, and Hookworm Infections 81
Brian G. Blackburn and Michele Barry

8 Toxic Cyanobacteria 95
Ian Stewart, Wayne W. Carmichael, and Lorraine C. Backer

9 Dengue: A Water-Borne Disease 111
Scott B. Halstead

10 Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease): Case Study of the Effort to Eradicate Guinea Worm 125
Donald R. Hopkins and Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben

11 Onchocerciasis 133
Adrian Hopkins and Boakye A. Boatin

12 Reassessing Multiple-Intervention Malaria Control Programs of the Past: Lessons for the Design of Contemporary Interventions 151
Burton H. Singer and Marcia C. Castro

13 Schistosomiasis 167
Pascal Magnussen, Birgitte Jyding Vennervald, and Jens Aagaard-Hansen

14 Trachoma 175
Joseph A. Cook and Silvio P. Mariotti

15 Shigellosis 187
Michael L. Bennish and M. John Albert

16 The Zimbabwe Cholera Epidemic of 2008–2009 205
Edward Dodge

17 Infectious Disease Control in Ghana: Government’s Interventions and Challenges to Malaria Eradication 211
Julius N. Fobil, Juergen May, and Alexander Kraemer

Section III Water Resources 217

18 Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Low-Income Countries 219
Thomas F. Clasen

19 Informal Small-Scale Water Services in Developing Countries: The Business of Water for Those without Formal Municipal Connections 231
Laura Sima and Menachem Elimelech

Section IV Sanitation and Hygiene 241

20 The Sanitation Challenge in India 243
Bindeshwar Pathak

21 Successful Sanitation Projects in Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore 251
Jay P. Graham

22 Household-Centered Environmental Sanitation Systems 257
Bindeshwar Pathak

Section V Environmental Factors of Water Pollution 269

23 Naturally Occurring Water Pollutants 271
Lorraine C. Backer, Jonathan K. Kish, Helena M. Solo-Gabriele, and Lora E. Fleming

24 Anthropogenic Sources of Water Pollution: Parts 1 and 2 289
Kerry L. Shannon, Robert S. Lawrence, and M. Danielle McDonald

25 The Hudson River: A Case Study of PCB Contamination 303
David O. Carpenter and Gretchen Welfinger-Smith

26 Other Water Pollutants: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria 329
Amy R. Sapkota

Section VI Current and Future Trends in Preventing Water Pollution 337

27 Controlling Water Pollutants 339
Jeffery A. Foran

28 Global Substitution of Mercury-Based Medical Devices in the Health Sector 351
Joshua Karliner and Peter Orris

29 Addressing Sources of PCBs and Other Chemical Pollutants in Water 359
Gretchen Welfinger-Smith and David O. Carpenter

30 Additional Measures to Prevent, Ameliorate, and Reduce Water Pollution and Related Water Diseases: Global Water Governance 385
Nikhil Chandavarkar

Section VII Emerging Issues in Ecology, Environment, and Disease 389

31 Changing Geographic Distribution of Disease Vectors 391
Mary E. Wilson

32 Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon 401
Marcia C. Castro and Burton H. Singer

33 Ecosystem Services, Water Resource Development, and Human Infectious Disease 421
Uriel N. Safriel

34 Ocean Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts of Brominated Flame Retardants 439
Susan D. Shaw and Kurunthachalam Kannan

Section VIII Conclusion 461

35 Assessment of Progress in Meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals 463
Gretchen Loeffler Peltier, Unni Krishnan Karunakara, and Anson Elisabeth Wright

36 Extending the Right to Health Care and Improving Child Survival in Mexico 475
Julio Frenk and Octavio Go´mez-Dantes

37 Using Kinship Structures in Health Programming - An Example of Preventive Measures and Successful Interventions 481
Moses N. Katabarwa

Index 485

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Janine M. H. Selendy
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