Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Environment. Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures

  • ID: 2174006
  • Book
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The single authoritative resource on the causes of and successful interventions for water and sanitation–related diseases

This book presents the most complete treatment possible of the conditions responsible for water and sanitation–related diseases, the pathogens involved and their biology, the morbidity and mortality resulting from lack of safe water and sanitation, the distribution of these diseases, and the conditions that must be met to reduce or eradicate them. Written by experts from the fields of public health, medicine, epidemiology, environmental health, climate change, environmental engineering, and population research, this authoritative volume provides a thorough understanding of the interconnection among many factors linked to water–related diseases, sanitation, and hygiene.

Divided into eight comprehensive sections that address the concerns from an international perspective, this volume covers:

  • The significance of the close relationships between water access and quality, lack of adequate sanitation and hygiene, and the relationship of human activity to the diseases

  • Means of accessing clean water and preventing contamination of water

  • The range of sanitation and hygiene measures available to reduce disease

  • The broad extent, variety, and ramifications of environmental factors

  • Ameliorating conditions and preventive measures to reduce pollutants found in ground and surface waters

  • The adverse health impacts of water pollution, dam construction, irrigation development, and flood control

Preventive measures and innovative, successful solutions are presented throughout, as well as featured in more detail in a special section at the end of the book. This section highlights examples from a diversity of locations in both developed and developing countries, focusing on what has been achieved in the control of water–related diseases—and what can be accomplished if the multi–factorial approach in this book is followed. The accompanying DVD, as well as a companion website, includes this vital information in the form of case studies and articles, providing guidance for possible action on local and national as well as international levels.

This timely text is an essential resource for all graduate students and postdoctoral scholars as well as for professionals in infectious diseases, public health and medicine, chemical and environmental engineering, international affairs, disease prevention, and public policy.

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PREFACE ix

CONTRIBUTORS xi

INTRODUCTION xvJanine M. H. Selendy and Jens Aargaard–Hansen

SECTION I DEFINING THE PROBLEM 1

1 Tackling the Water Crisis: A Continuing Need to Address Spatial and Social Equity 3Jay Graham

2 Sanitation and Hygiene: Taking Stock After Three Decades 17Jay Graham

3 Water and Health: The Demographic Background 29Robert Wyman

4 Water and War: Averting Armed Conflict and Protecting Human Rights 41Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel

SECTION II WATER AND SANITATION–RELATED DISEASES 45

5 Infectious Diarrhea 47Sean Fitzwater, Aruna Chandran, Margaret Kosek, and Mathuram Santosham

6 Malnutrition and Undernutrition 71Jeffrey K. Griffiths

7 Soil–Transmitted Helminths: Ascaris, Trichuris, and Hookworm Infections 81Brian G. Blackburn and Michele Barry

8 Toxic Cyanobacteria 95Ian Stewart, Wayne W. Carmichael, and Lorraine C. Backer

9 Dengue: A Water–Borne Disease 111Scott B. Halstead

10 Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease): Case Study of the Effort to Eradicate Guinea Worm 125Donald R. Hopkins and Ernesto Ruiz–Tiben

11 Onchocerciasis 133Adrian Hopkins and Boakye A. Boatin

12 Reassessing Multiple–Intervention Malaria Control Programs of the Past: Lessons for the Design of Contemporary Interventions 151Burton H. Singer and Marcia C. Castro

13 Schistosomiasis 167Pascal Magnussen, Birgitte Jyding Vennervald, and Jens Aagaard–Hansen

14 Trachoma 175Joseph A. Cook and Silvio P. Mariotti

15 Shigellosis 187Michael L. Bennish and M. John Albert

16 The Zimbabwe Cholera Epidemic of 2008–2009 205Edward Dodge

17 Infectious Disease Control in Ghana: Government’s Interventions and Challenges to Malaria Eradication 211Julius N. Fobil, Juergen May, and Alexander Kraemer

SECTION III WATER RESOURCES 217

18 Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Low–Income Countries 219Thomas F. Clasen

19 Informal Small–Scale Water Services in Developing Countries: The Business of Water for Those without Formal Municipal Connections 231Laura Sima and Menachem Elimelech

SECTION IV SANITATION AND HYGIENE 241

20 The Sanitation Challenge in India 243Bindeshwar Pathak

21 Successful Sanitation Projects in Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore 251Jay P. Graham

22 Household–Centered Environmental Sanitation Systems 257Bindeshwar Pathak

SECTION V ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OF WATER POLLUTION 269

23 Naturally Occurring Water Pollutants 271Lorraine C. Backer, Jonathan K. Kish, Helena M. Solo–Gabriele, and Lora E. Fleming

24 Anthropogenic Sources of Water Pollution: Parts 1 and 2 289Kerry L. Shannon, Robert S. Lawrence, and M. Danielle McDonald

25 The Hudson River: A Case Study of PCB Contamination 303David O. Carpenter and Gretchen Welfinger–Smith

26 Other Water Pollutants: Antibiotic–Resistant Bacteria 329Amy R. Sapkota

SECTION VI CURRENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN PREVENTING WATER POLLUTION 337

27 Controlling Water Pollutants 339Jeffery A. Foran

28 Global Substitution of Mercury–Based Medical Devices in the Health Sector 351Joshua Karliner and Peter Orris

29 Addressing Sources of PCBs and Other Chemical Pollutants in Water 359Gretchen Welfinger–Smith and David O. Carpenter

30 Additional Measures to Prevent, Ameliorate, and Reduce Water Pollution and Related Water Diseases: Global Water Governance 385Nikhil Chandavarkar

SECTION VII EMERGING ISSUES IN ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, AND DISEASE 389

31 Changing Geographic Distribution of Disease Vectors 391Mary E. Wilson

32 Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon 401Marcia C. Castro and Burton H. Singer

33 Ecosystem Services, Water Resource Development, and Human Infectious Disease 421Uriel N. Safriel

34 Ocean Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts of Brominated Flame Retardants 439Susan D. Shaw and Kurunthachalam Kannan

SECTION VIII CONCLUSION 461

35 Assessment of Progress in Meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals 463Gretchen Loeffler Peltier, Unni Krishnan Karunakara, and Anson Elisabeth Wright

36 Extending the Right to Health Care and Improving Child Survival in Mexico 475Julio Frenk and Octavio Gomez–Dantes

37 Using Kinship Structures in Health Programming—An Example of Preventive Measures and Successful Interventions 481Moses N. Katabarwa

INDEX 485

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Janine M. H. Selendy
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