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Research Ethics for Scientists. A Companion for Students

  • ID: 2174216
  • Book
  • September 2011
  • 224 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Research Ethics for Scientists is about best practices in all the major areas of research management and practice that are common to scientific researchers, especially those in academia. Aimed towards the younger scientist, the book critically examines the key areas that continue to plague even experienced and well–meaning science professionals.

For ease of use, the book is arranged in functional themes and units that every scientist recognizes as crucial for sustained success in science; ideas, people, data, publications and funding. These key themes will help to highlight the elements of successful and ethical research as well as challenging the reader to develop their own ideas of how to conduct themselves within their work.

Tackles the ethical issues of being a scientist rather than the ethical questions raised by science itself

- Case studies used for a practical approach
- Written by an experienced researcher and PhD mentor
- Accessible, user–friendly advice
- Indispensible companion for students and young scientists
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Preface xi

Acknowledgements and Dedication xiii

Chapter 1 Research Ethics: The Best Ethical Practices Produce the Best Science 1

Judge yourself 4

Morality vs ethics 4

Inauspicious beginnings 6

How science works 7

Summary 9

Judge yourself redux 9

Chapter 2 How Corrupt is Science? 11

Judge yourself 12

"Scientists behaving badly" 12

Do scientists behave worse with experience? 14

Judge yourself 15

Crime and punishment 15

Judge yourself 17

Judge yourself redux 18

Judge yourself redux 19

Judge yourself redux 19

Summary 20

Chapter 3 Plagiarise and Perish 21

Ideas 23

Sentences 23

Phrases 23

A hoppy example 24

What is plagiarism, really? 24

Judge yourself 25

How many consecutive identical and uncited words constitute plagiarism? 25

Self–plagiarism and recycling 26

Judge yourself 27

Judge yourself 31

Tools to discover plagiarism 33

Self–plagiarism and ethics revisited 34

Judge yourself 34

Is plagiarism getting worse? 35

The case of the plagiarising graduate student 35

Judge yourself redux 36


Judge yourself redux 37

Judge yourself redux 37

Summary 38

Chapter 4 Finding the Perfect Mentor 39

Caveat 40

Choosing a mentor 40

Judge yourself 43

Choosing a graduate project 46

Judge yourself 47

Mentors for assistant professors 47

How to train your mentor 52

Choosing the right research project: the new graduate student s dilemma 54

Judge yourself redux 56

Judge yourself redux 56

Summary 56

Chapter 5 Becoming the Perfect Mentor 57

Grants and contracts are a prerequisite to productive science 57

Judge yourself 58

Publications are the fruit of research 59

On a personal level 59

Judge yourself 60

Common and predictable mistakes scientist make at key stages in their training and careers and how being a good mentor can make improvements 60

Questions 70

Judge yourself redux 71

Judge yourself redux 71

Summary 72

Chapter 6 Research Misconduct: Fabricating Data 73

Why cheat? 74

Judge yourself 76

The case of Jan Hendrick Sch¨on, "Plastic Fantastic" 76

The case of Woo–Suk Hwang: dog cloner, data fabricator 77

Judge yourself 78

Detection of image and data misrepresentation 78

Judge yourself 81

Neither here nor there the curious case of Homme Hellinga 81

Judge yourself 83

Lessons learnt 83

Judge yourself redux 84

Judge yourself redux 84

Judge yourself redux 84

Summary 85

Chapter 7 Research Misconduct: Falsification and Whistleblowing 87

A "can of worms" indeed: the case of Elizabeth "Betsy" Goodwin 89

Judge yourself 91

Judge yourself 92

Judge yourself 94

Judge yourself 98

Deal with ethical quandaries informally if possible 99

Judge yourself 100

Cultivating a culture of openness, integrity, and accountability 100

Judge yourself redux 101

Judge yourself redux 102

Judge yourself redux 102

Judge yourself redux 102

Judge yourself redux 103

Summary 103

Chapter 8 Authorship: Who s an Author on a Scientific Paper and Why 105

The importance of the scientific publication 106

Judge yourself 107

Who should be listed as an author on a scientific paper? 107

Judge yourself 109

How to avoid author quandaries 110

Authorship for works other than research papers 111

The difference between authorship on scientific papers and inventorship on patents 112

Other thoughts on authorship and publications 113

Judge yourself 114

Judge yourself redux 118

Judge yourself redux 118

Judge yourself redux 119

Summary 119

Chapter 9 Grant Proposals: Ethics and Success Intertwined 121

Why funding is crucial 121

Judge yourself 125

Path to success in funding 125

Fair play and collaboration 126

Judge yourself 126

Judge yourself 128

Recordkeeping and fiscal responsibility 128

Pushing the limits on proposals 129

Judge yourself redux 133

Judge yourself redux 133

Judge yourself redux 134

Summary 134

Chapter 10 Peer Review and The Ethics of Privileged Information 135

The history of peer review 135

The nature of journals and the purpose of peer review 136

Which papers to review? 140

Anonymity 140

Judge yourself 141

Grant proposals 141

Confidentiality and privileged information 142

Reviewers 143

Judge yourself 143

Judge yourself redux 145

Judge yourself redux 145

Summary 146

Chapter 11 Data and Data Management: The Ethics of Data 147

Stewardship of data 148

Judge yourself 149

Judge yourself 153

Judge yourself 156

The land of in–between: ethics of data presented at professional meetings 156

Judge yourself 159

Future of data management 160

Judge yourself redux 160

Judge yourself redux 160

Judge yourself redux 161

Judge yourself redux 161

Summary 161

Chapter 12 Conflicts of Interest 163

The dynamic landscape of conflicts of interest 164

Potential conflicts of interest for university scientists 165

Judge yourself 169

Conflicts of interest within labs or universities 169

Judge yourself 170

Judge yourself redux 177

Judge yourself redux 177

Summary 177

Chapter 13 What Kind of Research Science World Do We Want? 179

"A culture of discipline and an ethic of entrepreneurship" 180

Judge yourself 181

Too much pressure? 181

Integrity awareness through ethics education 184

Accountability 185

We scientists 185

Judge yourself redux 186

Summary 187

Appendix 189

References 203

Index 209

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
C. Neal Stewart Jr.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown