Hazardous materials emergency response is an inherently dangerous occupation. To mitigate the risks, professionals over the past decade have learned to rely on Emergency Responder Training Manual for the Hazardous Materials Technician for its practical and innovative approach, real–world proven methods of delivery, and ease of use.
But as influential and invaluable as the first edition was, the inalterable transformation of the public and private hazmat response fields since its publication now requires its revision and updating. This Second Edition, still the most comprehensive resource on the market for addressing the training needs of personnel who respond to hazmat emergencies, has been expanded to include:
- Emergency response to terrorism incidents, including incident command, site control, personal protective equipment, air monitoring, and more
- Updated information on revised OSHA regulations, including the respiratory protection standard, focusing on both its requirements and its application
- Competency criteria mandated in the National Fire Protection Association′s standard on emergency response
- Emphasis on the Unified Command structure as part of the Incident Command System for managing large incidents
Emergency Responder Training Manual for the Hazardous Materials Technician, Second Edition provides the knowledge, experience, and insights of a veteran author team with over eight decades of combined academic and practical hazmat experience. Organized to lead the practitioner from preplanning to dispatch to stabilization of an incident, it remains the number–one resource for training personnel who must respond with speed and effectiveness to emergencies involving hazardous materials.
1. Introduction to Hazardous Materials.
What Are Hazardous Materials?
DOT′s Terminology: Hazardous Materials.
EPA′s Terminology: Hazardous Substances, Extremely Hazardous Substances, and Hazardous Waste.
OSHA′s Terminology: Hazardous Chemicals.
Ludwig Benner′s Definition.
Hazardous Materials Terminology in Common Usage: Hazmats.
Why Are We Concerned About Hazardous Materials?
Texas City, Texas.
Bhopal, India and Institute, West Virginia.
Kansas City, Missouri.
Your Town, USA.
In What Ways Are Hazardous Materials Harmful?
Hazardous Materials and Human Health.
Chemical Reaction, Fire, and Explosion.
Chemicals in the Environment.
New Threats: Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction.
Hazmat Response 101.
Response Guidelines and Models.
Response Roles and Procedures.
Organization and Applicability of This Textbook.
2. Response Laws, Regulations, Standards, and Other Policies.
Major Federal Policy Impacting Hazmat Response.
The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.
Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.
Clean Air Act.
Occupational Safety and Health Act.
Hazardous Materials Transportation Act.
Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act.
Homeland Security Act.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5.
Regulatory Departments and Agencies.
The Environmental Protection Agency.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
The Department of Transportation.
The Department of Homeland Security.
State and Local Governmental Regulatory Agencies.
Non–Regulatory Standards and Guidance by Governmental Agencies.
Consensus Standards of Professional Agencies.
The OSHA HAZWOPER Standard.
Purpose and Applicability.
Applicability to Emergency Response Operations.
Provisions of 29 CFR 1910.120 Applicable to Emergency Response Operations.
Chapter 3. Planning for Hazardous Materials Response.
Emergency Planning and Community Right–to–Know.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Title III (SARA Title III).
Framework of SARA Title III.
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (TRI Reporting).
What SARA Legislation Means to Responders.
Developing the Plan.
Defining the Plan.
Information Research and Evaluation.
Research Existing Plans.
Writing the Plan.
Structuring the Written Plan.
Plan Review and Modification Procedures.
Exercising the Plan.
Benefits of Conducting Exercises.
Levels of Exercise.
The Exercise Process.
4. Incident Management System.
History of the Incident Command System.
Basics of the Incident Command System.
Components of the IMS.
Major Functional Areas of the IMS.
Interaction of the Functional Areas of the IMS.
Command of the Incident Response.
Single and Unified Command Structures.
Area Command Structure.
National Incident Management System – HSPD–5.
Command Staff Responsibilities.
Structure of the Operations Section.
Basic Considerations for Operations.
The Planning Section.
The Logistics Section.
The Finance Section.
Putting It All Together.
5. Initial Assessment and Actions of Responders.
Recognizing and Identifying Hazardous Materials.
Overview of Regulatory Requirements Related to Incident Assessment.
Personal Knowledge, Emergency Response Plans, and Facility Maps.
Labels, Placards, and Other Hazard Identification Markings.
Occupancy and Location of the Incident.
Air Monitoring and Sampling of Hazardous Materials.
Initial Assessment and Actions.
Using the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook.
Decision Making In Emergencies.
Conducting a Perimeter Survey.
Making Entry and Conducting an On–Site Survey.
6. Chemical Hazard Assessment.
Estimate Likely Harm without Intervention.
Atoms and Molecules.
Gases and Vapors.
Changes in Physical State.
Properties of Chemicals.
Predicting Dispersal of Hazardous Materials.
Gas or Vapor Dispersal in Air.
Liquids Released into Water.
Liquids Released on Land.
Unstable Materials and Polymerization.
Toxic Combustion Products.
Researching Identified Materials.
Material Safety Data Sheets.
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards.
Emergency Action Guides.
Computer–Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO(r)).
The Street Smart Approach to Workplace Hazards.
The General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model.
7. Human Health Effects.
Learning about Toxic Effects.
Laboratory Studies with Animals.
Toxicity Information from Human Exposures.
Using Study Data to Predict Human Health Effects.
Sources of Health Effect Information.
Routes of Entry.
Contact with the Body Surface.
Inhalation into the Respiratory System .
Ingestion into the Digestive System.
The Body′s Response to Chemical Exposure.
Damage to the Body.
Damage to Body Systems.
Exposure to Multiple Chemicals.
Recognizing and Preventing Health Effects.
Medical Surveillance and Monitoring.
8. Physical Hazards of Emergency Response.
Vehicles and Heavy Equipment.
Job Safety Analysis.
Standard Operating Procedures.
9. Air Surveillance.
General Air Surveillance Strategies.
Perimeter and Background Survey.
Air Sampling with Laboratory Analysis.
Using Air Sampling Data.
Air Monitoring with Direct–Reading Instruments.
Basic Operation of DRIs.
Common Features of DRIs.
Special Sensors for Chemical and Biological WMDs.
Interpreting Air Monitoring Results.
Chip Measurement System (CMS).
Papers and Tapes.
Occupational Exposure Limits.
Emergency Exposure Limits.
Applying Exposure Limits.
10. Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction.
Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction Defined.
The Role of WMDs in Terrorism Incidents.
The Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack.
The Bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
The September 11th, 2001 Attack on the world Trade Towers and Pentagon.
Post–911 Anthrax attacks.
Future Terrorist attacks: Anytown, U.S.A..
Special Considerations for Terrorism Events.
Unique Aspects of WMD Events.
Special hazards to Responders.
Basic Considerations for WMD Agents.
Lethality and Effectiveness.
Routes of Exposure.
Immediate Versus Delayed Effects.
Types of WMD Agents and their Hazards.
Nuclear or Radiological devices.
Basic Guidelines for Responding to Terrorism/WMD Incidents.
Using the Federal Job Aid and DOT ERG.
Recognizing Potential Terrorist Incidents.
Security Assessment for Response and Initial Approach to an Incident.
On–Scene Safety Issues.
11. Site Control.
Objectives of Site Control.
Considerations for Establishing Site Control.
Evacuation and Protection in Place.
Access Control Points.
Other Zoning Considerations.
Site Control for Incidents Involving WMDs and Other Mass Casualty Incidents.
Special Considerations for WMD/Mass Casualty Incident Site Control.
Incorporating Mass Decontamination, Triage, Treatment, and Transport into Site Control Summary.
12. Personal Protective Equipment.
HAZWOPER Regulatory Requirements.
Written PPE Program.
Step 1. Assess All Hazards.
Type of Hazard.
Degree of Hazard.
Anticipate the Environmental Conditions and Entry Activities.
Entering Unidentified Hazard Areas.
Step 2. Select the Appropriate Respiratory Protection.
Regulations and Standards.
Selection and Use Considerations of Respirators for Hazmat Response.
Respiratory Protection for WMD Incidents.
Respirator Fit Testing.
Step 3. Select Chemical Protective Clothing.
Chemical Attacks on CPC.
Measurement of Chemical Attack.
CPC Material Selection Information.
Using CPC Material Selection Information.
Types of Protective Clothing.
Step 4. Choose Personal Safety Equipment.
Eye and Face Protection.
Step 5. Put It All Together Into Levels of Protection.
EPA Levels of Protection.
Step 6. Use the PPE Properly.
Factors Limiting Safe Work Mission Duration.
Personal Factors Affecting Respirator Use.
Inspection of PPE.
In–Use Monitoring of PPE.
Step 7. Store and Maintain PPE Properly.
Reuse of CPC.
Maintenance of PPE.
Technical Decontamination: Definition of and Justification.
Methods of Decontamination.
Levels of Decontamination Required.
Setting up a Contamination Reduction Corridor (CRC).
Personnel Decontamination Line.
Decontamination of Tools, Equipment, and Vehicles.
Management of the Decontamination Area.
Orderly Cleaning and Doffing.
Protection of Decontamination Personnel.
Containment of Liquids.
Emergency Medicine and Decontamination.
Protect the Responder.
Stop Contamination and Prevent Secondary Contamination.
Medical Management Guidelines.
Mass Decontamination Corridor (MDC).
Methods of Mass Decontamination.
Recommended Equipment for use in Mass Decontamination Operations.
Other Mass Decontamination Resources.
14. Basic Hazardous Materials Control.
The Role of Hazard and Risk Assessment and Decision Making in Hazardous Materials Control.
Types of Releases.
Procedures and Considerations For Basic Hazardous Materials Control.
Controlling Land Releases.
Controlling Water Releases.
Controlling Air Releases.
Pumping and Vacuum Collection.
Other Techniques and Considerations.
15. Advanced Hazardous Materials Control.
Assessment and Decision Making for Containment Operations.
Containment–Related Planning and Decision Making.
Assessment Considerations for Selection of Containment Procedures.
Considerations for Hazards to Personnel.
Equipment, Supplies, and Tools Used in Containment.
Plugs, Patches, and Related Items.
Adhesives, Sealants, and Gaskets.
Other Containment Related Items.
Procedures for Small Containers.
Procedures for Large Containers.
Procedures for Plumbing Leaks.
Procedures for Pressurized Containers.
Grounding and Bonding Flammable Liquid Containers.
Grounding and Bonding Equipment.
Procedures for Grounding and Bonding.
Other Safety Precautions for Transferring Flammables.
Overpacking Damaged Containers.
Safety Considerations for Overpacking.
Procedures for Placing Damaged Containers Into Overpack Containers.
16. Mental Stress and Emergency Response.
Victims of Traumatic Stress.
Methods of Coping with Traumatic Event Stress.
Critical Incident Stress Management.
Centers for Disease Control Strategy for Coping with Traumatic Stress.