Radio–frequency integrated circuit (RF IC) design is one of the most important fields in modern technology, as advances in chip architecture are essential to delivering the full promise of broadband wireless communications. Modern Receiver Front–Ends outlines today′s most cutting–edge approaches to advanced receiver design, covering topics ranging from system design to circuits and integration of a full solution. Bridging the gap between analytical understanding of receiver IC design and the limitations associated with practical implementation, the text offers a breadth of coverage second to none.
An ideal resource for entry–level designers and students of circuit design, the book addresses:
- The actual implementation of wireless systems
- A range of practical issues associated with receiver design, including semiconductor technology selection, cost versus performance, yield, prototype development, testing, and analysis
- The architectures employed in modern broadband wireless systems
- The fundamental challenges in receiver design, from IC implementation to packaging
- A wealth of tricks–of–the–trade and practical considerations
Preparing students for the real world of RF IC design and introducing them to the multidisciplinary challenges to be encountered in the real world of IC design, Modern Receiver Front–Ends offers an ideal bridge from university courses to standard industry practice.
1.1 Current State of the Art.
2 RECEIVER SYSTEM DESIGN.
2.1 Frequency Planning.
2.1.2 Spurs and Desensing.
2.1.3 Transmitter Leakage.
2.1.4 LO Leakage and Interference.
2.1.6 Half IF.
2.2 Link Budget Analysis.
2.2.3 Signal–to–Noise Ratio.
2.2.4 Receiver Gain.
2.3 Propagation Effects.
2.3.1 Path Loss.
2.3.2 Multipath and Fading.
2.4 Interface Planning.
3 REVIEW OF RECEIVER ARCHITECTURES.
3.1 Heterodyne Receivers.
3.2 Image Reject Receivers.
3.2.1 Hartley Architecture.
3.2.2 Weaver Architecture.
3.3 Zero IF Receivers.
3.4 Low IF Receivers.
3.5 I ssues in Direct Conversion Receivers.
3.5.2 LO Leakage and Radiation.
3.5.3 Phase and Amplitude Imbalance.
3.5.4 DC Offset.
3.6 Architecture Comparison and Trade–off.
4 SILICON–BASED RECEIVER DESIGN.
4.1 Receiver Architecture and Design.
4.1.1 System Description and Calculations.
4.1.2 Basics of OFDM.
4.1.3 System Architectures.
4.1.4 System Calculations.
4.2 Circuit Design.
4.2.1 SiGe BiCMOS Process Technology.
4.2.4 Frequency Divider.
4.3 Receiver Design Steps.
4.3.1 Design and Integration of Building Blocks.
4.3.2 DC Conditions.
4.3.3 Scattering Parameters.
4.3.4 Small–Signal Performance.
4.3.5 Transient Performance.
4.3.6 Noise Performance.
4.3.7 Linearity Performance.
4.3.8 Parasitic Effects.
4.3.9 Process Variation.
4.3.10 50– and Non–50– Receivers.
4.4 Layout Considerations.
4.5 Characterization of Receiver Front–Ends.
4.5.1 DC Test.
4.5.2 Functionality Test.
4.5.3 S–Parameter Test.
4.5.4 Conversion Gain Test.
4.5.5 Linearity Test.
4.5.6 Noise Figure Test.
4.5.7 I/Q Imbalance.
4.5.8 DC Offset.
4.6 Measurement Results and Discussions.
4.6.1 Close Examination of Noise Figure and I/Q Imbalance.
4.6.2 Comments on I/Q Imbalance.
5 SUBHARMONIC RECEIVER DESIGNS.
5.1 Illustration of Subharmonic Techniques.
5.2 Mixing Using Antisymmetric I V Characteristics.
5.3 Impact of Mismatch Effects.
5.4 DC Offset Cancellation Mechanisms.
5.4.1 Intrinsic DC Offset Cancellation.
5.4.2 Extrinsic DC Offset Cancellation.
5.5 Experimental Verification of DC Offset.
5.6 Waveform Shaping Before Mixing.
5.6.1 Theory and Analysis.
5.6.2 Experimental Verification on GaAs MESFET APDP.
5.6.3 Implementation in Silicon.
5.7 Design Steps for APDP–Based Receivers.
5.8 Architectural Illustration.
5.9 Fully Monolithic Receiver Design Using Passive APDP Cores.
5.9.1 Integrated Direct Conversion Receiver MMIC s.
5.9.2 Receiver Blocks.
5.9.3 Additional Receiver Blocks.
5.10 Reconfigurable Multiband Subharmonic Front–Ends.
6 ACTIVE SUBHARMONIC RECEIVER DESIGNS.
6.1 Stacking of Switching Cores.
6.1.1 Description and Principles.
6.1.2 Subharmonic Receiver Architecture.
6.2 Parallel Transistor Stacks.
6.2.1 Active Mixer.
6.2.2 Receiver Architecture.
6.2.3 Extension to Passive Mixers.
6.3 Extension to Higher–Order LO Subharmonics.
6.4 Multiple Phase Signal Generation from Oscillators.
6.5 Future Direction and Conclusion.
7 DESIGN AND INTEGRATION OF PASSIVE COMPONENTS.
7.1 System on Package (SoP).
7.1.1 Multilayer Bandpass Filter.
7.1.2 Multilayer Balun Structure.
7.1.3 Module–Integrable Antennaw.
7.1.4 Fully Integrated SoP Module.
7.2 On–Chip Inductors.
7.2.1 Inductor Modeling.
7.2.2 Inductor Parameters.
7.2.3 Application in Circuits.
7.4 Differentially Driven Inductors.
7.5.1 Electrical Parameters.
7.5.2 Physical Construction.
7.5.3 Electrical Models.
7.5.4 Frequency Response of Transformers.
7.5.5 Step–Up/Step–Down Transformers and Circuit Applications.
7.6 On–Chip Filters.
7.6.1 Filters Using Bond Wires.
7.6.2 Active Filters.
7.7 On–Wafer Antennas.
7.8 Wafer–Level Packaging.
8 DESIGN FOR INTEGRATION.
8.1 System Design Considerations.
8.1.1 I/O Counts.
8.1.3 Digital Circuitry Noise.
8.2 IC Floor Plan.
8.2.1 Signal Flow and Substrate Coupling.
8.3 Packaging Considerations.
8.3.1 Package Modeling.
8.3.2 Bonding Limitation.
9 FUTURE TRENDS.
9.1 CMOS Cellphones.
9.2 Multiband, Multimode Wireless Solutions.
9.3 60 GHz Subsystems in Silicon!
9.4 Interchip Communications.
9.5 Ultrawideband Communication Technology.
9.6 Diversity Techniques.