Smart Structures offers a basic and fundamental description of smart structures from the physical, mathematical and engineering viewpoint. It explains the basic physics relating to the behaviour of active materials, gives the mathematical background behind the phenomena, and provides tools for numerical simulation. It also offers an insight into considerations related to the manufacturing, assembly and integration of smart structures.
Smart Structures is divided into 5 sections: in the first part a definition of smart structures is proposed, the motivation for developing a smart structure presented and the basic physics of active materials such aspiezoelectrics, electrostrictives, magnetostrictives and shape memory alloys briefly recalled. A second part is devoted to the mathematical modelling of piezoelectric bodies. The third part discusses actuation and sensing mechanisms based on which the active part of a smart structure will produce results on the passive one. The fourth part deals with active composites at the micromechanical and macromechanical level, and the fifth part is devoted to applications of smart structures with examples taken from the aerospace field.
This introduction to smart structures will be useful both for structural and mechanical designers, and for students and researchers at graduate level or beyond. The diverse industries involved in this rapidly evolving field include aerospace, automotive and bioengineering.
1 Introduction to Smart Structures.
1.1 Smart Structures and Traditional Structures: Definition and Main Constituents.
1.2 Smart Structures and Active Materials.
1.3 The Physical Behaviour of Active Materials for Actuation and Sensing.
1.4 Motivations for the Use of Smart Structure Technologies.
1.5 Monitoring Structural Integrity.
1.6 Shape Morphing.
1.7 Vibration Control.
1.8 Energy Harvesting.
2 Mathematical Modelling of Piezoelectric Bodies.
2.1 Analysis of Piezoelectric Continua.
2.2 Finite Element Equations for Piezoelectric Problems.
2.3 Finite Element Simulation of Piezoelectric Analyses of Practical Interest.
2.4 Beam, Plate and Shell Models.
3 Actuation and Sensing Mechanisms.
3.1 The Induced Strain Actuation Mechanism.
3.2 Axial Actuation.
3.3 Bending Actuation.
3.4 The Generalization of Pin–force and Euler Bernoulli Beam Actuation.
3.5 Static Response of a Beam Subjected to Bending Actuation.
3.6 Dynamic Response of a Beam Actuated in Bending.
3.7 Higher Order Models for Beam Bending Actuation.
3.8 Sensing Mechanism.
3.9 Control Issues.
4 Active Composites.
4.1 The Concept of Active Composites.
4.2 Piezoelectric Fibre Composites.
4.3 Interdigitated Electrodes for Piezoelectric Components.
4.4 Micromechanics of a Piezoelectric Fibre Composite.
4.5 Finite Element Evaluation of the Piezoelectric Properties of the Active Composite.
4.6 Macromechanics of Active Composites.
5 Application of Smart Structures in Engineering Practice.
5.1 Shape Morphing.
5.2 Vibration Control.
5.3 Ultrasonic Motors.