Featuring contributions from leading researchers and academicians in the field of survey research, Question Evaluation Methods: Contributing to the Science of Data Quality sheds light on question response error and introduces an interdisciplinary, cross–method approach that is essential for advancing knowledge about data quality and ensuring the credibility of conclusions drawn from surveys and censuses. Offering a variety of expert analyses of question evaluation methods, the book provides recommendations and best practices for researchers working with data in the health and social sciences.
Based on a workshop held at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), this book presents and compares various question evaluation methods that are used in modern–day data collection and analysis. Each section includes an introduction to a method by a leading authority in the field, followed by responses from other experts that outline related strengths, weaknesses, and underlying assumptions. Topics covered include:
- Behavior coding
Item response theory
Latent class analysis
Field–based data methods
A concluding discussion identifies common themes across the presented material and their relevance to the future of survey methods, data analysis, and the production of Federal statistics. Together, the methods presented in this book offer researchers various scientific approaches to evaluating survey quality to ensure that the responses to these questions result in reliable, high–quality data.
Question Evaluation Methods is a valuable supplement for courses on questionnaire design, survey methods, and evaluation methods at the upper–undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a reference for government statisticians, survey methodologists, and researchers and practitioners who carry out survey research in the areas of the social and health sciences.
1 Introduction 1
Jennifer Madans, Kristen Miller, Aaron Maitland, and Gordon Willis
I BEHAVIOR CODING 5
2 Coding the Behavior of Interviewers and Respondents to Evaluate Survey Questions 7
Floyd J. Fowler, Jr.
3 Response 1 to Fowler’s Chapter: Coding the Behavior of Interviewers and Respondents to Evaluate Survey Questions 23
Nora Cate Schaeffer and Jennifer Dykema
4 Response 2 to Fowler’s Chapter: Coding the Behavior of Interviewers and Respondents to Evaluate Survey Questions 41
II COGNITIVE INTERVIEWING 49
5 Cognitive Interviewing 51
6 Response 1 to Miller’s Chapter: Cognitive Interviewing 77
7 Response 2 to Miller’s Chapter: Cognitive Interviewing 93
Frederick G. Conrad
III ITEM RESPONSE THEORY 103
8 Applying Item Response Theory for Questionnaire Evaluation 105
Bryce B. Reeve
9 Response 1 to Reeve’s Chapter: Applying Item Response Theory for Questionnaire Evaluation 125
Ron D. Hays
10 Response 2 to Reeve’s Chapter: Applying Item Response Theory for Questionnaire Evaluation 137
Clyde Tucker, Brian Meekins, Jennifer Edgar, and Paul P. Biemer
IV LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS 151
11 Some Issues in the Application of Latent Class Models for Questionnaire Design 153
Paul P. Biemer and Marcus Berzofsky
12 Response 1 to Biemer and Berzofsky’s Chapter: Some Issues in the Application of Latent Class Models for Questionnaire Design 187
13 Response 2 to Biemer and Berzofsky’s Chapter: Some Issues in the Application of Latent Class Models for Questionnaire Design 199
Janet A. Harkness and Timothy P. Johnson
V SPLIT–SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS 213
14 Experiments for Evaluating Survey Questions 215
Jon A. Krosnick
15 Response 1 to Krosnick’s Chapter: Experiments for Evaluating Survey Questions 239
16 Response 2 to Krosnick’s Chapter: Experiments for Evaluating Survey Questions 253
Theresa DeMaio and Stephanie Willson
VI MULTITRAIT–MULTIMETHOD EXPERIMENTS 263
17 Evaluating the Reliability and Validity of Survey Interview Data Using the MTMM Approach 265
Duane F. Alwin
18 Response to Alwin’s Chapter: Evaluating the Reliability and Validity of Survey Interview Data Using the MTMM Approach 295
Peter Ph. Mohler
VII FIELD–BASED DATA METHODS 319
19 Using Field Tests to Evaluate Federal Statistical Survey Questionnaires 321
Brian A. Harris–Kojetin and James M. Dahlhamer
KRISTEN MILLER, PhD, is Director of the Question Design Research Laboratory at the NCHS. She currently oversees the question evaluation research program and designs and implements research projects on data quality and comparability in the health sciences.
AARON MAITLAND, MS, is Statistician at the Question Design Research Laboratory at the NCHS, where he is the administrator of Q–Bank, the agency′s online database of question evaluation reports for Federal surveys.
GORDON WILLIS, PhD, is a Cognitive Psychologist at the Applied Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences at the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Willis has more than twenty years of experience in planning, conducting, and reporting of all phases of cognitive laboratory research.