Molecular Plant Immunity

  • ID: 2175304
  • Book
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Plants are equipped with a sophisticated immune system that allows for the recognition and defense against disease and infection. The pathogens that plants face are constantly evolving and developing new strategies to circumvent immune responses. Increased demands on plants as a source of both food and energy necessitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow plants to ward off pathogens and flourish in their environments. Molecular Plant Immunity provides comprehensive coverage of the molecular basis of plant disease resistance.

Molecular Plant Immunity looks at plant immune responses at a molecular level to provide readers with a foundational understanding of the cellular processes that allow plants to fight pathogens and disease. Chapters look at the various roles played by receptors, resistance proteins, effector proteins, and plant hormones in immune response. Coverage also extends to plant–viral interactions and closes with a chapter looking forward at the prospects of genetic–engineering efforts to increase plant immunity.

Molecular Plant Immunity collects the latest research into a cohesive and broad–ranging review of the plant immune processes and will provide readers with a deeper understanding of how plants combat pathogens and are able to thrive in complex environments. This book will be an essential resource for plant biologists, pathologists, virologists, plant biotechnologists, and crop scientists.

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Contributors xi

Preface xv

Chapter 1 The Rice Xa21 Immune Receptor Recognizes a Novel Bacterial Quorum Sensing Factor 1Chang Jin Park and Pamela C. Ronald

Introduction 1

Plants and Animal Immune Systems 2

A Plethora of Immune Receptors Recognize Conserved Microbial Signatures 2

Ax21 Conserved Molecular Signature 3

Non–RD Receptor Kinase Xa21 8

XA21–Mediated Signaling Components 11

Cleavage and Nuclear Localization of the Rice XA21 Immune Receptor 13

Regulation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Quality Control of XA21 14

Systems Biology of the Innate Immune Response 15

Acknowledgments 16

References 16

Chapter 2 Molecular Basis of Effector Recognition by Plant NB–LRR Proteins 23Lisong Ma, Harrold A. van den Burg, Ben J. C. Cornelissen, and Frank L. W. Takken

Introduction 23

Building Blocks of NB–LRRs; Classification and Structural Features of Subdomains 24

Putting the Parts Together: Combining the Domains to Build a Signaling Competent NB–LRR Protein 29

Stabilization and Accumulation of NB–LRR Proteins: Their Maturation and Stabilization 30

When the Pathogen Attacks: Perception and Signaling by NB–LRR Proteins 33

Conclusion 35

Acknowledgments 35

References 36

Chapter 3 Signal Transduction Pathways Activated by R Proteins 41Gitta Coaker and Douglas Baker

Introduction 41

R Protein Stability 42

Genetic Separation of CC and TIR–NB–LRR Signaling 42

NB–LRRs Exhibit Modular Structure and Function 44

Subcellular Localization of NB–LRRs 45

NB–LRRs Can Function in Pairs 47

Common Immune Signaling Events Downstream of R Protein Activation 48

Conclusion 50

Acknowledgments 50

References 50

Chapter 4 The Roles of Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid in Plant Immunity 55Pradeep Kachroo and Aardra Kachroo

Introduction 55

Biosynthesis of SA 55

Derivatives of SA 57

SA and Systemic Acquired Resistance 58

SA Signaling Pathway 60

Jasmonates Mediate Plant Immunity 62

JA Biosynthetic Mutants Are Altered in Microbial Defense 63

Receptor Protein Complex Perceives JA 65

Transcription Factors Regulate JA–Derived Signaling 66

JA Regulates Defense Gene Expression 68

Conclusion 68

Acknowledgments 68

References 69

Chapter 5 Effectors of Bacterial Pathogens: Modes of Action and Plant Targets 81Feng Feng and Jian–Min Zhou

Introduction 81

Overview of Plant Innate Immunity 81

Overview of Type III Effectors 83

Host Targets and Biochemical Functions 86

Conclusion 99

Acknowledgments 99

References 99

Chapter 6 The Roles of Transcription Activator Like (TAL) Effectors in Virulence and Avirulence of Xanthomonas 107Aaron W. Hummel and Adam J. Bogdanove

Introduction 107

TAL Effectors Are Delivered into and May Dimerize in the Host Cell 107

TAL Effectors Function in the Plant Cell Nucleus 108

AvrBs4 Is Recognized in the Plant Cell Cytoplasm 109

TAL Effectors Activate Host Gene Expression 109

Central Repeat Region of TAL Effectors Determines DNA Binding Specificity 110

TAL Effectors Wrap Around DNA in a Right–Handed Superhelix 111

TAL Effector Targets Include Different Susceptibility and Candidate Susceptibility Genes 112

MtN3 Gene Family Is Targeted by Multiple TAL Effectors 114

Promoter Polymorphisms Prevent S Gene Activation to Provide Disease Resistance 115

Nature of the Rice Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene xa5 Suggests TAL Effector Interaction With Plant Transcriptional Machinery 115

Executor R Genes Exploit TAL Effector Activity for Resistance 116

Diversity of TAL Effectors in Xanthomonas Populations Is Largely Unexplored 117

TAL Effectors Are Useful Tools for DNA Targeting 118

Conclusion 118

References 119

Chapter 7 Effectors of Fungi and Oomycetes: Their Virulence and Avirulence Functions and Translocation From Pathogen to Host Cells 123Brett M. Tyler and Thierry Rouxel

Introduction 123

Plant–Associated Fungi and Oomycetes 125

Identification of Fungal and Oomycete Effectors 126

Defensive Effectors: Effectors That Interfere With Plant Immunity 137

Offensive Effectors: Effectors That Debilitate Plant Tissue 146

Effectors That Contribute to Fitness via Unknown Mechanisms 149

Entry of Intracellular Effectors 149

Genome Location and Consequences for Adaptation/Dispensability 152

Conclusion 153

Acknowledgments 154

References 154

Chapter 8 Plant–Virus Interaction: Defense and Counter–Defense 169Amy Wahba Foreman, Gail J. Pruss, and Vicki Vance

Introduction 169

RNA Silencing as an Antiviral Defense Pathway the Beginning of the Story 169

Small Regulatory RNA Biogenesis and Function 172

The Silencing Mafia the Protein Families 174

Defense: Antiviral RNA Silencing Pathways 177

Counter–Defense: Viral Suppressors of Silencing and Their Targets 178

Viral Suppressors of Silencing and Endogenous Small Regulatory RNA Pathways 181

References 182

Chapter 9 Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Interaction Between Tomato and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 187Andr´e C. Vel´asquez and Gregory B. Martin

Introduction 187

PAMP–Triggered Immunity in Solanaceae 188

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Virulence Mechanisms 192

Effector–Triggered Immunity in Solanaceae 197

Races of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato 200

ETI Is Involved in Nonhost Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars 200

ETI Signaling Pathways in Solanaceae 201

Conclusion 203

Acknowledgments 204

References 204

Chapter 10 Cladosporium fulvum Tomato Pathosystem: Fungal Infection Strategy and Plant Responses 211Bilal O¨ kmen and Pierre J. G. M. de Wit

Introduction 211

History of the Interaction Between C. fulvum and Tomato 212

Compatible and Incompatible Interactions 212

Cf–Mediated Downstream Signaling 219

Effectors in Other Fungi with Similar Infection Strategies 220

Conclusion 221

References 221

Chapter 11 Cucumber Mosaic Virus Arabidopsis Interaction: Interplay of Virulence Strategies and Plant Responses 225Jack H. Westwood and John P. Carr

Introduction 225

Biology of CMV 226

Host Resistance Responses to Virus Infection 230

Targeting of Host Factors by the Virus 236

Phenomenon of Cross–Protection 237

Functions of SA in Antiviral Defense 237

Metabolic Responses to CMV Infection 239

Vector–Mediated Transmission 240

Conclusion 242

Acknowledgments 242

References 243

Chapter 12 Future Prospects for Genetically Engineering Disease–Resistant Plants 251Yan–Jun Chen, Michael F. Lyngkjær, and David B. Collinge

Introduction 251

Targets for Second–Generation Transgenic Strategies for Resistance 252

Hormones 253

Defense Modulation 256

Transcription Factors 260

Promoters for Transgenic Disease Resistance 265

Implementation of Transgenic Resistance in the Field 266

Why Choose a Transgenic Approach? 267

Conclusion 269

Acknowledgments 269

References 269

Index 277

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Guido Sessa is Associate Professor of Molecular Plant Pathology in the Department of Molecular Biology and Ecology of Plants at Tel–Aviv University, Tel–Aviv, Israel.

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