The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including:
- A new chapter on non–crystalline diffraction – designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio–molecules
- A new chapter on x–ray imaging – developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field
- Two new chapters covering non–crystalline diffraction and imaging
- Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition
- Four–colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts
- Extensive problems after each chapter
There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (<a href="[external URL]
Praise for the previous edition:
“The publication of Jens Als–Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X–ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x–ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002
Preface to the first edition.
Acknowledgements from the first edition.
Notes on the use of this book.
1 X–rays and their interaction with matter.
1.1 X–rays: waves and photons.
1.4 Refraction and reflection.
1.6 Magnetic interactions.
1.7 Further reading.
2.1 Early history and the X–ray tube.
2.2 Introduction to synchrotron radiation.
2.3 Synchrotron radiation from a circular arc.
2.4 Undulator radiation.
2.5 Wiggler radiation.
2.6 Free–electron lasers.
2.7 Compact light sources.
2.8 Coherence volume and photon degeneracy.
2.9 Further reading.
3 Refraction and reflection from interfaces.
3.1 Refraction and phase shift in scattering.
3.2 Refractive index and scattering length density.
3.3 Refractive index including absorption.
3.4 Snell’s law and the Fresnel equations in the X–ray region.
3.5 Reflection from a homogeneous slab.
3.6 Specular reflection from multilayers.
3.7 Reflectivity from a graded interface.
3.8 Rough interfaces and surfaces.
3.9 Examples of reflectivity studies.
3.10 X–ray optics.
3.11 Further reading.
4 Kinematical scattering I: non–crystalline materials.
4.1 Two electrons.
4.2 Scattering from an atom.
4.3 Scattering from a molecule.
4.4 Scattering from liquids and glasses.
4.5 Small–angle X–ray scattering (SAXS).
4.6 Further reading.
5 Kinematical scattering II: crystalline order.
5.1 Scattering from a crystal.
5.2 Quasiperiodic structures.
5.3 Crystal truncation rods.
5.4 Lattice vibrations, the Debye–Waller factor and TDS.
5.5 The measured intensity from a crystallite.
5.6 Applications of kinematical diffraction.
5.7 Further reading.
6 Diffraction by perfect crystals.
6.1 One atomic layer: reflection and transmission.
6.2 Kinematical reflection from a few layers.
6.3 Darwin theory and dynamical diffraction.
6.4 The Darwin reflectivity curve.
6.5 DuMond diagrams.
6.6 Further reading.
7 Photoelectric absorption.
7.1 X–ray absorption by an isolated atom.
7.2 EXAFS and near–edge structure.
7.3 X–ray dichroism.
7.5 Further reading.
8 Resonant scattering.
8.1 The forced charged oscillator model.
8.2 The atom as an assembly of oscillators.
8.3 The Kramers–Kronig relations.
8.4 Numerical estimate of f ′ .
8.5 Breakdown of Friedel’s law and Bijvoet pairs.
8.6 The phase problem in crystallography.
8.7 Quantum mechanical description.
8.8 Further reading.
9.2 Absorption contrast imaging.
9.3 Phase contrast imaging.
9.4 Coherent diffraction imaging.
9.6 Further reading.
A Scattering and absorption cross–sections.
B Classical electric dipole radiation.
C Quantization of the electromagnetic field.
D Gaussian statistics.
E Fourier transforms.
F Comparison of X–rays with neutrons.
G MATLABr computer programs.
H Answers to exercises and hints.
List of symbols.