A comprehensive introduction to reliability and availability modeling, analysis, and design at the system, hardware, and software levels
Reliability of Computer Systems and Networks presents the fundamentals of reliability and availability analysis for various computer hardware, software, and networked systems. Reliability and availability as major objectives in system design are the focus. Various redundancy and fault–tolerant techniques, as well as error–correcting coding techniques are treated.
The author proposes a high–level design approach based on apportioning the reliability and availability goals to subsystems and provides various techniques for achieving these subsystem goals. The next step is an efficient, exact optimization approach based on upper and lower bounds to minimize the number of feasible candidates. The most readily applied methods for analysis are utilized and design techniques are derived from basic principles. Analytical simplifications and approximations are developed to validate the results of computer models used for large–scale complex problems.
- Coding and decoding schemes for error detection and correction including chip reliability
- Comparison of the reliability and availability of parallel, standby, and majority voting architectures
- Formulation, solution, and interpretation of Markov models for repairable systems
- Introduction and comparison of various RAID memory systems
- The architecture and fault–tolerant principles of TANDEM and STRATUS non–stop computer systems
- Practical and tutorial examples and numerous practice problems
- Appendices which cover the necessary background material on probability, reliability, and architecture
Reliability of Computer Systems and Networks offers in–depth and up–to–date coverage of reliability and availability for students with a focus on important applications areas, computer systems, and networks. Professionals in systems and reliability design, as well as computer architecture, will find it a highly useful reference.
1.1 What is Fault–Tolerant Computing?
1.2 The Rise of Microelectronics and the Computer.
1.3 Reliability and Availability.
1.4 Organization of the Book.
2 Coding Techniques.
2.2 Basic Principles.
2.3 Parity–Bit Codes.
2.4 Hamming Codes.
2.5 Error–Detection and Retransmission Codes.
2.6 Burst Error–Correction Codes.
2.7 Reed Solomon Codes.
2.8 Other Codes.
3 Redundancy, Spares, and Repairs.
3.3 System Versus Component Redundancy.
3.4 Approximate Reliability Functions.
3.5 Parallel Redundancy.
3.6 An r–out–of–n Structure.
3.7 Standby Systems.
3.8 Repairable Systems.
3.9 RAID Systems Reliability.
3.10 Typical Commercial Fault–Tolerant Systems: Tandem and Stratus.
4 N–Modular Redundancy.
4.2 The History of N–Modular Redundancy.
4.3 Triple Modular Redundancy.
4.4 N–Modular Redundancy.
4.5 Imperfect Voters.
4.6 Voter Logic.
4.7 N–Modular Redundancy with Repair.
4.8 N–Modular Redundancy with Repair and Imperfect Voters.
4.9 Availability of N–Modular Redundancy with Repair and Imperfect Voters.
4.10 Microcode–Level Redundancy.
4.11 Advanced Voting Techniques.
5 Software Reliability and Recovery Techniques.
5.2 The Magnitude of the Problem.
5.3 Software Development Life Cycle.
5.4 Reliability Theory.
5.5 Software Error Models.
5.6 Reliability Models.
5.7 Estimating the Model Constants.
5.8 Other Software Reliability Models.
5.9 Software Redundancy.
5.10 Rollback and Recovery.
6 Networked Systems Reliability.
6.2 Graph Models.
6.3 Definition of Network Reliability.
6.4 Two–Terminal Reliability.
6.5 Node Pair Resilience.
6.6 All–Terminal Reliability.
6.7 Design Approaches.
7 Reliability Optimization.
7.2 Optimum Versus Good Solutions.
7.3 A Mathematical Statement of the Optimization Problem.
7.4 Parallel and Standby Redundancy.
7.5 Hierarchical Decomposition.
7.7 Optimization at the Subsystem Level via Enumeration.
7.8 Bounded Enumeration Approach.
7.9 Apportionment as an Approximate Optimization Technique.
7.10 Standby System Optimization.
7.11 Optimization Using a Greedy Algorithm.
7.12 Dynamic Programming.
Appendix A Summary of Probability Theory.
A2 Probability Theory.
A3 Set Theory.
A4 Combinatorial Properties.
A5 Discrete Random Variables.
A6 Continuous Random Variables.
A8 Markov Variables.
Appendix B Summary of Reliability Theory.
B2 Combinatorial Reliability.
B3 Failure–Rate Models.
B4 System Reliability.
B5 Illustrative Example of Simplified Auto Drum Brakes.
B6 Markov Reliability and Availability Models.
B7 Repairable Systems.
B8 Laplace Transform Solutions of Markov Models.
Appendix C Review of Architecture Fundamentals.
C1 Introduction to Computer Architecture.
C2 Logic Gates, Symbols, and Integrated Circuits.
C3 Boolean Algebra and Switching Functions.
C4 Switching Function Simplification.
C5 Combinatorial Circuits.
C6 Common Circuits: Parity–Bit Generators and Decoders.
C8 Storage Registers.
Appendix D Programs for Reliability Modeling and Analysis.
D2 Various Types of Reliability and Availability Programs.
D3 Testing Programs.
D4 Partial List of Reliability and Availability Programs.
D5 An Example of Computer Analysis.