The rapid growth of high–speed semiconductor and communication technologies has helped make phase–locked loops (PLLs) an essential part of memories, microprocessors, radio–frequency (RF) transceivers, broadband data communication systems, and other burgeoning fields. Complementing his 1996 Monolithic Phase–Locked Loops and Clock Recovery Circuits (Wiley–IEEE Press), Behzad Razavi now has collected the most important recent writing on PLL into a comprehensive, self–contained look at PLL devices, circuits, and architectures.
Phase–Locking in High–Performance Systems: From Devices to Architectures’ five original tutorials and eighty–three key papers provide an eminently readable foundation in phase–locked systems. Analog and digital circuit designers will glean a wide range of practical information from the book’s . . .
- Tutorials dealing with devices, delay–locked loops (DLLs), fractional–N synthesizers, bang–bang PLLs, and simulation of phase noise and jitter
- In–depth discussions of passive devices such as inductors, transformers, and varactors
- Papers on the analysis of phase noise and jitter in various types of oscillators
- Concentrated examinations of building blocks, including the design of oscillators, frequency dividers, and phase/frequency detectors
- Articles addressing the problem of clock generation by phase–locking for timing and digital applications, RF synthesis, and the application of phase–locking to clock and data recovery circuits
In tandem with its companion volume, Phase–Locking in High–Performance Systems: From Devices to Architectures is a superb reference for anyone working on, or seeking to better understand, this rapidly–developing and increasingly central technology.
About the Author.
Part I: Original Contributions.
Devices and Circuits for Phase–Locked Systems.
Delay–Locked Loops – An Overview.
Delta–Sigma Fractional–N Phase–Locked Loops.
Design Bang–Bang PLLs for Clock and Data Recovery in Serial Data Transmission Systems.
Predicting the Phase Noise and Jitter of PLL–Based Frequency Synthesizers.
Part II: Devices.
Physics–Based Closed–Form Inductance Expression for Compact Modeling of Integrated Spiral Inductors.
The Modeling, Characterization, and Design of Monolithic Inductors for Silicon RF IC′s.
Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Spiral Inductors and Transformers for Si RF IC′s.
Stacked Inductors and Transformers in CMOS Technology.
Estimation Methods for Quality Factors of Inductors Fabricated in Silicon Integrated Circuit Process Technologies.
A Q–Factor Enhancement Technique for MMIC Inductors.
On–Chip Spiral Inductors with Patterned Ground Shields for Si–Based RF IC′s.
The Effects of a Ground Shield on the Characteristics and Performance of Spiral Inductors.
Temperature Dependence of Q and Inductance in Spiral Inductors Fabricated in a Silicon–Germanium/BiCMOS Technology.
Substrate Noise Coupling Through Planar Spiral Inductor.
Design of High–Q Varactors for Low–Power Wireless Applications Using a Standard CMOS Process.
On the Use of MOS Varactors in RF VCO′s.
Part III: Phase Noise and Jitter.
Low–Noise Voltage–Controlled Oscillators Using Enhanced LC–Tanks.
A Study of Phase Noise in CMOS Oscillators.
A General Theory of Phase Noise in Electrical Oscillators.
Physical Processes of Phase Noise in Differential LC Oscillators.
Phase Noise in LC Oscillators.
The Effect of Varactor Nonlinearity on the Phase Noise of Completely Integrated VCOs.
Jitter in Ring Oscillators.
Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators.
A Study of Oscillator Jitter Due to Supply and Substrate Noise.
Measurements and Analysis of PLL Jitter Caused by Digital Switching Noise.
On–Chip Measurement of the Jitter Transfer Function of Charge–Pump Phase–Locked Loops.
Part IV: Building Blocks.
A Low–Noise, Low–Power VCO with Automatic Amplitude Control for Wireless Applications.
A Fully Integrated VCO at 2 GHz.
Tail Current Noise Suppression in RF CMOS VCOs.
Low–Power Low–Phase–Noise Differentially Tuned Quadrature VCO Design in Standard CMOS.
Analysis and Design of an Optimally Coupled 5–GHz Quadrature LC Oscillator.
A 1.57–GHz Fully Integrated Very Low–Phase–Noise Quadrature VCO.
A Low–Phase–Noise 5GHz Quadrature CMOS VCO Using Common–Mode Inductive Coupling.
An Integrated 10/5GHz Injection–Locked Quadrature LC VCO in a 0.18[mu]m Digital CMOS Process.
Rotary Traveling–Wave Oscillator Arrays: A New Clock Technology.
35–GHz Static and 48–GHz Dynamic Frequency Divider IC′s Using 0.2–[mu]m AlGaAs/GaAs–HEMT′s.
Superharmonic Injection–Locked Frequency Dividers.
A Family of Low–Power Truly Modular Programmable Dividers in Standard 0.35–[mu]m CMOS Technology.
A 1.75–GHz/3–V Dual–Modulus Divide–by–128/129 Prescaler in 0.7–[mu]m CMOS.
A 1.2 GHz CMOS Dual–Modulus Prescaler Using New Dynamic D–Type Flip–Flops.
High–Speed Architecture for a Programmable Frequency Divider and a Dual–Modulus Prescaler.
A 1.6–GHz Dual Modulus Prescaler Using the Extended True–Single–Phase–Clock CMOS Circuit Technique (E–TSPC).
A Simple Precharged CMOS Phase Frequency Detector.
Part V: Clock Generation by PLLs and DLLs.
A 320 MHz, 1.5 mW @ 1.35 V CMOS PLL for Microprocessor Clock Generation.
A Low Jitter 0.3–165 MHz CMOS PLL Frequency Synthesizer for 3 V/5 V Operation.
Low–Jitter Process–Independent DLL and PLL Based on Self–Biased Techniques.
A Low–Jitter PLL Clock Generator for Microprocessors with Lock Range of 340–612 MHz.
A 960–Mb/s/pin Interface for Skew–Tolerant Bus Using Low Jitter PLL.
Active GHz Clock Network Using Distributed PLLs.
A Low–Noise Fast–Lock Phase–Locked Loop with Adaptive Bandwidth Control.
A Low–Jitter 125–1250–MHz Process–Independent and Ripple–Poleless 0.18–[mu]m CMOS PLL Based on a Sample–Reset Loop Filter.
A Dual–Loop Delay–Locked Loop Using Multiple Voltage–Controlled Delay Lines.
An All–Analog Multiphase Delay–Locked Loop Using a Replica Delay Line for Wide–Range Operation and Low–Jitter Performance.
A Semidigital Dual Delay–Locked Loop.
A Wide–Range Delay–Locked Loop with a Fixed Latency of One Clock Cycle.
A Portable Digital DLL for High–Speed CMOS Interface Circuits.
CMOS DLL–Base 2–V 3.2–ps Jitter 1–GHz Clock Synthesizer and Temperature–Compensated Tunable Oscillator.
A 1.5V 86 mW/ch 8–Channel 622–3125–Mb/s/ch CMOS SerDes Macrocell with Selectable Mux/Demux Ratio.
A Register–Controlled Symmetrical DLL for Double–Data–Rate DRAM.
A Low–Jitter Wide–Range Skew–Calibrated Dual–Loop DLL Using Antifuse Circuitry for High–Speed DRAM.
Part VI: RF Synthesis.
An Adaptive PLL Tuning System Architecture Combining High Spectral Purity and Fast Settling Time.
A 2–V 900–MHz Monolithic CMOS Dual–Loop Frequency Synthesizer for GSM Receivers.
A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with an Injection–Locked Frequency Divider for a 5–GHz Wireless LAN Receiver.
A 2.6–GHz/5.2–GHz Frequency Synthesizer in 0.4–[mu]m CMOS Technology.
Fast Switching Frequency Synthesizer with a Discriminator–Aided Phase Detector.
Low–Power Dividerless Frequency Synthesis Using Aperture Phase Detection.
A Stabilization Technique for Phase–Locked Frequency Synthesizers.
A Modeling Approach for [Sigma]–[Delta] Fractional–N Frequency Synthesizers Allowing Straightforward Noise Analysis.
A Fully Integrated CMOS Frequency Synthesizer with Charge–Averaging Charge Pump and Dual–Path Loop Filter for PCS– and Cellular–CDMA Wireless Systems.
A 1.1–GHz CMOS Fraction–N Frequency Synthesizer With a 3–b Third–Order [Sigma]–[Delta] Modulator.
A 1.8–GHz Self–Calibrated Phase–Locked Loop with Precise I/Q Matching.
A 27–mW CMOS Fractional–N Synthesizer Using Digital Compensation for 2.5–Mb/s GFSK Modulation.
A CMOS Monolothic [Sigma][Delta]–Controlled Fractional–N Frequency Synthesizer for DSC–1800.
Part VII: Clock and Data Recovery.
A 2.5–Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery IC with Tunable Jitter Characteristics for Use in LAN′s and WAN′s.
Clock/Data Recovery PLL Using Half–Frequency Clock.
A 0.5–[mu]m CMOS 4.0–Gbit/s Serial Link Transceiver with Data Recovery Using Oversampling.
A 2–1600–MHz CMOS Clock Recovery PLL with Low–Vdd Capability.
SiGe Clock and Data Recovery IC with Linear–Type PLL for 10–Gb/s SONET Application.
A Fully Integrated SiGe Receiver IC for 10–Gb/s Data Rate.
A 10–Gb/s CMOS Clock and Data Recovery Circuit with a Half–Rate Linear Phase Detector.
A 10–Gb/s CMOS Clock and Data Recovery Circuit with Frequency Detection.
A 10–Gb/s CDR/DEMUX with LC Delay Line VCO in 0.18[mu]m CMOS.
A 40–Gb/s Integrated Clock and Data Recovery Circuit in a 50–GHz f[subscript T] Silicon Bipolar Technology.
A Fully Integrated 40–Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery IC With 1:4 DEMUX in SiGe Technology.
Clock and Data Recovery IC for 40–Gb/s Fiber–Optic Receiver.