As well as covering long–established methods, this book includes the breadth of new developments which have taken place in the field of environmental analysis. New techniques have emerged which have now become acceptable as alternatives to more long–standing methods. There is also more use of automated techniques. Quality assurance and quality control aspects have become increasingly important for the environmental analyst with a growing emphasis on accurate quantification. The techniques discussed develop in complexity from simple volumetric measurements for water quality to the special problems of ultra–trace analysis. As well as covering all of the laboratory techniques used in extraction and analysis of samples, attention is also given to in situ monitoring and sampling strategies.
Key features include the following:
∗ Up–to–date information on now widely used analytical techniques such as ICP–MS, ICP–OES, and PM10 sampling.
∗ Written in the AnTS Series style, it is ideal for use as a self–study aid or as the basis of a taught course.
∗ Includes a comprehensive bibliography to guide the reader to more specialized texts and sources for the various standard methods.
Introduction to Environmental Analysis will be invaluable to students on environmental science and analytical chemistry courses, as well as laboratory technicians, biologists and analytical chemists involved in environmental monitoring.
Acronyms, Abbeviations and Symbols
About the Author
Reasons for Concern
The Necessity of Chemical Analysis
2. Transport of Pollutants in the Environment and Approaches to their Analysis
Sources, Dispersal, Reconcentration and Degradation
Transport and Reconcentration of Neutral Organic Compounds
Transport and Reconcentration of Metal Ions
What is a Safe Level?
Sampling and Sample Variability
General Apporoach to Analysis
The Choice of Laboratory or Field Analysis
3. Water Analysis –
Measurement of Water Quality
Techniques for the Analysis of Common Ions
4. Water Analysis –
Organic Trace Pollutants
5. Analysis of Land, Solids and Waste
Common Problem Areas in the Analysis of Solids
Specific Considerations for the Analysis of Biological Samples
Specific Considerations for the Analysis of Soils
Speicifc Considerations for the Analysis of Contaminated Land
Specific Considerations for the Analysis involved in Waste and Its Disposal by Landfill
Specific Considerations of Sediments and Sewage Sludge
New Extraction and Dissolution Techniques
6. Atmospheric Analysis –
Determination of Time–weighted Average Concentrations
Determination of Instanteous Concentrations
7. Atmsopheric Analysis –
Analytical Methods involving Sample Dissolution
Direct Analysis of Solids
8. Ultra–Trace Analysis
A Typical Analytical Scheme
Responses to Self–Assessment Questions
Glossary of Terms
Units of Measurement and Physical Constants