In this groundbreaking book, internationally acclaimed authors demonstrate that innovation can be mastered via systematic and replicable methods. Following careful instructions and guidelines, readers discover how to foster the ingenuity that resides within all organizations and how it can be most efficiently and effectively used to create value.
At the core of this book is the Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST). FAST is a powerful mapping technique that graphically models projects, products, and processes in function terms and identifies function dependencies. It is an organized structure ideally suited to exploring complex issues. Readers start with basic concepts and then move on to more advanced concepts using FAST to help their organizations survive and prosper in today′s global economy. Topics include:
- Problem–solving techniques
- Function analysis
- Function Analysis Systems Technique (FAST)
- Dimensioning the FAST model
- Attributes and the FAST model
- Enabling innovation
- From competency to capability
Practical examples and case studies are provided throughout the book to assist the reader in applying the principles of FAST to their own organizations.
Stimulating Innovation in Products and Services is based on the authors′ many years of experience advising clients in a variety of industries, including oil and gas, aerospace, health care, and man–ufacturing. Its practical focus assists all engineers, scientists, and managers who want to foster innovation within their organizations. Extensive use of case studies makes this an ideal coursebook for MBA students.
The Meaning of Function.
What Have We Learned?
Applying FAST to Hardware Products.
Reading a FAST Model.
Analyzing a FAST Model.
Some Unique Ways That a FAST Model Has Been Used.
How It All Began.
Toward an Innovation Process.
Who Models Functions?
Why an Interdisciplinary Team?
Unlocking Practical Ingenuity.
When Should We Use FAST?
Distinguishing Between Problem and Opportunity.
Difference Between FAST Diagrams and FAST Models.
Validating Function Models.
Outline of This Book.
2. PROBLEM–SOLVING TECHNIQUES.
Verb Noun Function Technique.
Fuzzy Problem Technique.
Setting Up the Problem in the Fuzzy Problem Technique.
Verb Noun and Fuzzy Problem Techniques Within the Hierarchical Technique.
3. FUNCTION ANALYSIS.
Function Analysis Syntax.
Using Two Words to Describe Functions.
Defining and Classifying Functions.
Types of Functions.
Rules Governing Basic Functions.
Function Identification Example.
Random Function Determination.
Levels of Abstraction.
Function and Component Selection.
Function Cost Matrix.
Simplifying the Process.
4. FUNCTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM TECHNIQUE.
As Is Versus Should Be Models.
Syntax Used to Create and Read a FAST Model.
Reading How Why and Our Intentions.
How Why Versus Why How Orientation.
Reading When to Consider Causality and Consequential Functioning.
Key Elements of a FAST Model.
Requirements or Specifications.
Independent (Support) Functions.
Logic Path Functions.
Articulating Theories in FAST.
Variations of How Why Questions.
Considering And Or Along the Logic Path.
Considering And in the When Direction.
Considering Or in the When Direction.
FAST Model–Building Process: Product Example.
Expanding the Number of Functions.
Case for Using Active Verbs.
Purpose of Expanding Functions.
Avoiding Duplicate Functions.
Starter Kit Functions.
Preparations for Building a FAST Model.
Build How and Test Why.
Relationship of the Left Scope Line to the Basic Function.
Right Scope Line.
Left Scope Line.
What s the Problem?
Defining the Problem.
Three Questions Before Starting the FAST Process.
How the Strategic Questions Are Asked in a Workshop.
Symbols and Notations Used in FAST Modeling.
Taking Exception to the FAST Rules.
Independent Functions Above the Logic Path, Activities Below the Logic Path.
No Activities in the Major Logic Path.
Only Two Words Used to Describe Functions.
Validating the Logic Flow.
Exploration Drilling Model.
5. DIMENSIONING THE FAST MODEL.
FAST Dimensioning Themes.
Business Process and Soft Issues.
Facility Management Case Study.
Determining Responsibility, Move to Action.
Incorporating Other Dimensions in FAST Models.
FAST and Organizational Effectiveness.
Organizational Effectiveness Case Study.
Model the Future or the Present?
Incorporating Additional Dimensions.
Product– and Equipment–Based FAST Models (Artifacts).
Sensitivity Matrix in Product (Artifact) Analysis.
Staple Remover Case Study Using FAST With the Sensitivity Matrix.
Determining Component Function Cost Details.
Pipeline Case Study Using the Sensitivity Matrix.
Other Case–Specific Dimensions.
Budgeting Operating Expenses and the Sensitivity Matrix.
Example Using Clustering.
6. ATTRIBUTES AND THE FAST MODEL.
Defining an Attribute s Range of Acceptance.
Incorporating Attributes Into a FAST model.
Linking Issues of Concern to a FAST model.
Construction Management Case Study.
Influence of Attributes and Incentives on FAST Modeling.
Software Acquisition Case Study.
Validity of a FAST Model.
Pre–event s Role in FAST Modeling.
Areas Defined by a Scope Line.
Resolving the Incentive Issue.
Determining the Incentive Earned Points Score.
7. ENABLING INNOVATION.
Analyzing FAST Models.
Distinguishing Outcomes and Ideas.
Starting to Generate Ideas.
Handling Negative Functions.
Examples of Negative Functions.
TRIZ and Negative Functions: Path to Creativity.
Defining Problems: Prerequisite to Seeking Solutions.
Problem Set Matrix.
Identifying Critical Innovation Points.
Realizing Innovation Through FAST Models.
Toward Innovation That Makes a Difference.
Importance of the Pre–event Phase.
XYZ–3 Case Study.
Defining XYZ–3 s Problems.
Setting Project Goals.
Selecting Random Functions.
Constructing the FAST Model.
Selecting Functions to Be Brainstormed.
Using FAST for Brainstorming.
Concluding the XYZ–3 Value Study.
8. FROM COMPETENCY TO CAPABILITY.
Moving Toward Know–How and FAST models.
Discovering New Knowledge.
Management of Functionality.
Using FAST Modeling to Improve the Supply Chain.
Using FAST Modeling to Enable Shared Understanding.
Managing Intangible Value to Advantage.
Automotive Parts Case Study.
How Can We Unify?
APPENDIX: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS.
ROY WOODHEAD, PhD, is Senior Lecturer at Oxford Brookes University, UK, in the fields of innovation management, technology management, and value management. He is a Vice President of SAVE and has been an invited keynote speaker to international value management conferences. Using action research in conjunction with innovation techniques, he has worked with companies such as Shell International, BP, and Agip to structure decision–making processes and leverage their innovation potential.