This book covers the public health, technical, socioeconomic, sociocultural and institutional aspects of sanitation in towns and cities of developing countries. The text features excreta–related diseases and the use of sanitation to reduce their transmission. The sanitation technologies covered in detail are VIP latrines, pour–flush toilets, septic tanks, settled sewerage and simplified sewerage, with additional chapters on sullage disposal, pit emptying, and sewage treatment and reuse. Sociocultural constraints on sanitation systems and their socioeconomic costing are described, together with hygiene education, which is essential in order to achieve maximum benefits to health. The text also explains how to choose the most appropriate sanitation option for a given low–income community. Finally, institutional aspects are reviewed, including effective sanitation programme planning, monitoring and evaluation.
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