Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes

  • ID: 2176692
  • Book
  • 584 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A unique and timely review of the emergence of eukaryotic virulence in fungi, oomycetes, and protozoa, as they affect both animals and plants

Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes addresses new developments in defining the molecular basis of virulence in eukaryotic pathogens. By examining how pathogenic determinants have evolved in concert with their hosts, often overcoming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, the book takes a fresh look at the selective processes that have shaped their evolution.

Introductory chapters ground the reader in principal evolutionary themes such as phylogenetics and genetic exchange, building a basis of knowledge for later chapters covering advances in genetic tools, how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature, and the common themes of evolutionary adaptation that lead to disease in different hosts.

With the goal of linking the research findings of the many disparate scientific communities in the field, the book:

  • Assembles for the first time a collection of chapters on the diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms and the influence of evolutionary forces on the origins and emergence of their virulent attributes
  • Highlights examples from three important, divergent groups of eukaryotic microorganisms that cause disease in animals and plants: oomycetes, protozoan parasites, and fungi
  • Covers how the development of genetic tools has fostered the identification and functional analyses of virulence determinants
  • Addresses how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature via classical or modified meiotic processes, horizontal gene transfer, and sexual cycles including those that are cryptic or even unisexual
  • Provides a broad framework for formulating future studies by illustrating themes common to different pathogenic microbes

Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes is an ideal book for microbiologists, evolutionary biologists and medical professionals, as well as graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty members working on the evolution of pathogens.

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PREFACE ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi

CONTRIBUTORS xiii

PART I GENERAL OVERVIEWS 1

1 Population Genetics and Parasite Diversity 3Hsiao–Han Chang, Rachel F. Daniels, and Daniel L. Hartl

2 Evolution of Meiosis, Recombination, and Sexual Reproduction in Eukaryotic Microbes 17Wenjun Li, Elizabeth Savelkoul, Joseph Heitman, and John M. Logsdon, Jr.

3 Phylogenomic Analysis 44Andrew J. Roger, Martin Kolisko, and Alastair G. B. Simpson

4 Phylogenetics and Evolution of Virulence in the Kingdom Fungi 70Monica A. Garcia–Solache and Arturo Casadevall

PART II POPULATION GENETICS AND EVOLUTIONARY APPROACHES 91

5 Malaria: Host Range, Diversity, and Speciation 93Ananias A. Escalante and Francisco J. Ayala

6 From Population Genomics to Elucidated Traits in Plasmodium Falciparum 111Sarah K. Volkman, Daniel E. Neafsey, Stephen F. Schaffner, Pardis C. Sabeti, and Dyann F. Wirth

7 Selective Sweeps in Human Malaria Parasites 124Xin–zhuan Su and John C. Wootton

8 Evolution of Drug Resistance in Fungi 143Jessica A. Hill, Samantha J. Hoot, Theodore C. White, and Leah E. Cowen

9 Discovery of Extant Sexual Cycles in Human Pathogenic Fungi and Their Roles in the Generation of Diversity and Virulence 168Richard J. Bennett and Kirsten Nielsen

10 Worldwide Migrations, Host Shifts, and Reemergence of Phytophthora Infestans, the Plant Destroyer 192Jean Beagle Ristaino

11 Experimental and Natural Evolution of the Cryptococcus Neoformans and Cryptococcus Gattii Species Complex 208Alexander Idnurm and Jianping Xu

12 Population Genetics, Diversity, and Spread of Virulence in Toxoplasma Gondii 231Benjamin M. Rosenthal and James W. Ajioka

PART III FORWARD AND REVERSE GENETIC SYSTEMS FOR DEFINING VIRULENCE 247

13 Genetic Crosses in Plasmodium Falciparum: Analysis of Drug Resistance 249John C. Tan and Michael T. Ferdig

14 Genetic Mapping of Virulence in Rodent Malarias 269Richard Carter and Richard Culleton

15 Genetic Mapping of Acute Virulence in Toxoplasma Gondii 285L. David Sibley and John C. Boothroyd

16 Virulence in African Trypanosomes: Genetic and Molecular Approaches 307Annette Macleod, Liam J. Morrison, and Andy Tait

17 The Evolution of Antigenic Variation in African Trypanosomes 324Andrew P. Jackson and J. David Barry

18 Antigenic Variation, Adherence, and Virulence in Malaria 338Joseph Smith and Kirk W. Deitsch

19 Invasion Ligand Diversity and Pathogenesis in Blood–Stage Malaria 362Manoj T. Duraisingh, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, and Peter R. Preiser

PART IV COMPARATIVE "OMICS" APPROACHES TO DEFINING VIRULENCE 385

20 Evolution of Virulence in Oomycete Plant Pathogens 387Paul R. J. Birch, Mary E. Coates, and Jim L. Beynon

21 Evolution and Genomics of the Pathogenic Candida Species Complex 404Geraldine Butler, Michael Lorenz, and Neil A. R. Gow

22 Evolution of Entamoeba Histolytica Virulence 422Upinder Singh and Christopher D. Huston

23 Sex and Virulence in Basidiomycete Pathogens 437Guus Bakkeren, Emilia K. Kruzel, and Christina M. Hull

24 Emergence of the Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis and Global Amphibian Declines 461Matthew C. Fisher, Jason E. Stajich, and Rhys A. Farrer

25 Impact of Horizontal Gene Transfer on Virulence of Fungal Pathogens of Plants 473Barbara J. Howlett and Richard P. Oliver

26 Evolution of Plant Pathogenicity in Fusarium Species 485Li–Jun Ma, H. Corby Kistler, and Martijn Rep

27 Genetic, Genomic, and Molecular Approaches to Define Virulence of Aspergillus Fumigatus 501Laetitia Muszkieta, William J. Steinbach, and Jean–Paul Latge

28 Cryptosporidium: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenesis 518Satomi Kato and Jessica C. Kissinger

INDEX 545

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It should be of interest to evolutionary biologists, medical microbiologists and plant pathologists at postdoctoral and faculty levels.   (Microbiology Today, 26 November 2012)

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