Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. Techniques and Applications

  • ID: 2177090
  • Book
  • 344 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Cavity ring–down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a simple, highly sensitive direct absorption technique based on the rate of absorption of light circulating in an optical cavity. CRDS can be used to study atoms and molecules in the gas and condensed phase, and is especially powerful for measuring strong absorptions of species present in trace amounts or weak absorptions of abundant species. The technique can be applied in physical, atmospheric, environmental and analytical chemistry, also combustion science, physics, medical diagnostics and biology

Cavity Ring–Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications provides a practical overview of this valuable analytical tool, explaining the fundamental concepts and experimental methods, and illustrating important applications.

The book presents a complete and methodical approach to the topic and describes:

  • Introductory concepts and basic experimental techniques
  • Useful variants such as continuous wave, phase shift, and broadband CRDS
  • Recent developments in the field, and key applications, for example, spectroscopic studies of transient molecules, monitoring trace amounts of atmospheric species, analysis of exhaled breath in clinical diagnostics, and CRDS under extreme conditions.

Designed as both an introductory text and a reference source, this book is relevant for scientists unfamiliar with CRDS who are interested in using the technique in their research, as well as experienced users.

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Preface

List of contributors

Glossary

Chapter 1 – An introduction to cavity ring–down spectroscopy

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Direct absorption spectroscopy

1.3 Basic cavity ring down spectroscopy setup

1.4 A more refined picture

1.5 Fitting of cavity ring down transients

1.6 A few examples

1.7 Going beyond the standard pulsed CRDS experiment

1.8 Summary

1.9 References

Chapter 2 – Cavity enhanced techniques using continuous wave lasers

2.1 Introduction

2.1 Properties of optical cavities and cw lasers relevant to cavity enhanced spectroscopy

2.3 Experimental methods for cw laser cavity enhanced spectroscopy

2.4 Spectroscopy with resonant cavities

2.5 Summary

Chapter 3 – Broadband cavity ring–down spectroscopy

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The time and wavelength evolution of a single ringdown event.

3.3 Two dimensional techniques: resolving broadband cavity output in time and wavelength.

3.4 One dimensional techniques: time or wavelength.

3.5 How to extract quantitative information from broadband spectra.

3.6 Optimising the sensitivity of a broadband measurement.

3.7 Applications of broadband cavity methods.

3.8 References.

Chapter 4 – Cavity ring–down spectroscopy in analytical chemistry

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Condensed media CRDS

4.3 Evanescent–wave CRDS

4.4 Future trends and perspectives

Chapter 5 – Cavity ring–down spectroscopy using waveguides

5.1. Introduction

5.2. The basic experiments

5.3. Optics and Instrumentation

5.4. Review of waveguide CRD literature

5.5. Conclusion and outlook

5.6. Acknowledgements

Chapter 6 – Cavity ring down spectroscopy of molecular transients of astrophysical interest

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Experimental

6.3. Astronomical considerations

6.4. Results

6.5. Outlook

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 7 – Applications of cavity ring–down spectroscopy in atmospheric chemistry

7.1. Brief overview

7.2. Measurement of trace atmospheric species by CRDS

7.3. Laboratory based studies of atmospheric interest

7.4. Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles

7.5. Future developments

Chapter 8 – Cavity ring–down spectroscopy for medical applications

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Trace gases in medicine and biology

8.3. Instrumentation for laser analytics of breath and other biological gas samples

8.4. Applications to life sciences

8.5. Conclusion and Perspectives

8.6. References

Chapter 9: Studies into the growth mechanism of a–Si:H using in situ cavity ring–down techniques

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Gas phase CRDS on SiHx­ radicals

9.3. Thin film CRDS on dangling bonds in a–Si:H films (ex situ)

9.4. Evanescent wave CRDS on dangling bonds during a–Si:H film growth

Chapter 10 Cavity ring down spectroscopy for combustion studies

10.1. Introduction

10.2. General description of cavity ring down spectroscopy in flames

10.3. Experimental set–up

10.4. Quantitative concentration measurements in flames

10.5. Concentration profile determination

10.6. Specific difficulties in combustion studies

10.7. Case of particles: soot volume fraction determination

10.8. Conclusion and prospective

References

Appendix A Literature

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"Explain[s] introductory concepts and basic experimental techniques; useful variants such as continuous wave, phase shift, and broadband CRDS; and developments and applications." (
Book News , December 2009)

It is undoubtedly a good reference to have in the lab where CRDS experiments are done. Given the wide range of areas where CRDS and its variants are being applied, it seems likely that this book will generate broad interest in the chemical (and other scientific) communities. ( JACS, January 2010)
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