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Fish Processing. Sustainability and New Opportunities. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 2177130
  • Book
  • October 2010
  • 312 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
This book seeks to address the challenges facing the international seafood industry via a two pronged approach: by offering the latest information on established technologies and introducing new ideas and technologies. An introductory chapter sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. Chapter two looks at the environmental and sustainability issues relating to conventional fish processing, including processing efficiency and better use of the outputs currently considered wastes. The impact of mechanisation and computerisation on environmental sustainability is also addressed. Subsequent chapters examine the latest developments in established fish processing technologies such as canning, curing, freezing and chilling, with an emphasis on the environmental aspects of packaging and the process itself. In addition, quality and processing parameters for specific species, including new species, are described.

The second part of the book gives authors the opportunity to introduce the potential technologies and applications of the future to a wider audience. These include fermented products and their acceptance by a wider audience; the utilisation of fish processing by-products as aquaculture feeds; and the use of by-products for bioactive compounds in biomedical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and other applications.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xi

Contributors xii

1 Introduction: Challenges to the Fish-Processing Industry in a Resource-Starved World 1
George M. Hall

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Defining sustainability 1

1.1.2 Sustainable development concepts for FPI 4

1.2 Sustainability tools 8

1.2.1 Carbon footprinting 9

1.2.2 Carbon labelling 9

1.2.3 Life cycle assessment 10

1.2.4 The supply chain 14

1.3 Climate change 15

1.4 The capture fishery 17

1.4.1 Current production levels 17

1.4.2 Future trends and fisheries management 17

1.5 Contribution of aquaculture 19

1.5.1 Current production levels 19

1.5.2 Future trends 19

1.5.3 Barriers to increased production 20

1.6 Industrial fish production 21

1.6.1 Current levels 21

1.6.2 Future trends 22

1.6.3 Redefining ‘industrial species’ 22

1.7 Implications for the processing industry 22

1.7.1 Efficiency in processing 22

1.7.2 Food security and trade 23

1.7.3 Introducing new food species 24

1.7.4 Post-harvest losses 25

1.7.5 Environmental impact of fish processing 26

1.8 Conclusion: sustainability in the fish-processing industry 27

References 28

2 Canning Fish and Fish Products 30
George M. Hall

2.1 Principles of canning 30

2.1.1 Thermal destruction of fish-borne bacteria 30

2.1.2 Quality criteria for thermally processed fish 34

2.2 Packaging materials 34

2.2.1 Glass jars 35

2.2.2 Rigid metal containers 35

2.2.3 Rigid plastic containers 37

2.2.4 Flexible containers (pouches) 37

2.2.5 Environmental issues related to packaging materials 37

2.3 Processing operations 39

2.3.1 Pre-processing operations 40

2.3.2 Heat-processing operations 44

2.3.3 Post-processing operations 46

2.3.4 Environmental issues and process optimization 46

2.4 Canning of specific species 47

2.4.1 Small pelagics 48

2.4.2 Tuna and mackerel 48

2.4.3 Crustacea 48

2.5 Conclusions 48

References 49

3 Preservation by Curing (Drying, Salting and Smoking) 51
George M. Hall

3.1 Basic relationships 51

3.1.1 Water activity and spoilage 51

3.1.2 Product quality 53

3.2 Drying 53

3.2.1 Air- or contact drying 53

3.2.2 Improving the efficiency of drying 55

3.3 Salting 55

3.3.1 Wet and dry salting 55

3.3.2 Quality aspects 56

3.4 Smoking 57

3.4.1 The preservative effect 57

3.4.2 Quality aspects 57

3.4.3 Smoking systems and equipment 58

3.4.4 Traditional systems 59

3.4.5 Fuel wood for traditional fish smoking 62

3.5 Post-harvest losses in fish smoking 65

3.5.1 Sustainable livelihoods approach 67

3.5.2 Assessing post-harvest fisheries losses 70

3.6 Sustainability issues 74

References 75

4 Freezing and Chilling of Fish and Fish Products 77
George M. Hall

4.1 Introduction 77

4.1.1 Freezing time calculations 77

4.1.2 Effect of freezing on micro-organisms and parasites 79

4.1.3 Physico-chemical effects during freezing 79

4.1.4 Temperature modelling in fish transportation 81

4.2 Freezing systems 82

4.2.1 The refrigeration cycle 82

4.2.2 Classification of freezers 83

4.2.3 Air-blast freezers 84

4.2.4 Immersion freezers 86

4.2.5 Plate freezers 86

4.2.6 Cryogenic freezers 86

4.3 Environmental impact of freezing operations 87

4.3.1 Energy efficiency of freezing systems 87

4.3.2 Cold storage systems 88

4.3.3 Refrigerants and cryogens 89

4.3.4 New refrigeration techniques 90

4.3.5 Environmental impact of freezer/cold storage buildings 91

4.4 Life cycle assessment and the supply chain 92

References 95

5 Surimi and Fish Mince Products 98
George M. Hall

5.1 Introduction 98

5.1.1 Fish muscle proteins 100

5.1.2 Important protein properties in surimi processing 101

5.1.3 Appropriate species for surimi production 102

5.1.4 Surimi quality and sustainability 104

5.2 The surimi process 104

5.2.1 Basic process elements 104

5.2.2 Energy consumption 106

5.2.3 Water consumption 108

5.2.4 By-product development 109

5.3 Fish mince processing 109

References 110

6 Sustainability Impacts of Fish-Processing Operations 112
George M. Hall

6.1 Introduction 112

6.2 Sustainability issues 113

6.2.1 Sustainability and legislation 113

6.2.2 Energy 115

6.2.3 Water 120

6.2.4 Effluents 120

6.2.5 By-product development 120

6.3 Individual processes 121

6.4 Life cycle assessment 123

6.4.1 Background 123

6.4.2 Application to fish-processing operations 125

6.4.3 Development of LCA for fishing activity 127

6.5 Supply chain analysis 129

6.6 Cleaner production 131

6.7 Processing in a changing world 134

References 135

7 Sustainability of Fermented Fish Products 138
S. Kose and George M. Hall

7.1 Introduction 138

7.2 Principles of the fermentation process 139

7.2.1 Metabolic activity of LAB 139

7.2.2 The genera of LAB 140

7.2.3 Other issues relating to fermentation process 140

7.2.4 Inhibitory effects of LAB 141

7.3 Definition and classification of fermented fish products 142

7.3.1 Definition 142

7.3.2 Classification 143

7.4 Types of fermented fish products 146

7.4.1 European products 146

7.4.2 South-East Asian products 147

7.4.3 Fermented fish products of Africa 150

7.5 Quality and standards of fermented fish products 151

7.5.1 Salting procedures 152

7.5.2 Micro-organisms 152

7.5.3 Fish enzymes 153

7.5.4 Temperature during fermentation 153

7.5.5 Nutritional issues 153

7.5.6 Flavour 154

7.5.7 Presence of lipids 154

7.5.8 Colour 154

7.5.9 Other characteristics 155

7.6 Safety issues related to fermented fish products 155

7.6.1 Pathogenic bacteria 156

7.6.2 Parasites 158

7.6.3 Histamine and other biogenic amines 158

7.7 Conclusions 163

Acknowledgements 163

References 163

8 On-board Fish Processing 167
S. Kose

8.1 Introduction 167

8.2 On-board processing 168

8.2.1 Types of plants processing at sea 168

8.2.2 Tenders 171

8.2.3 History of on-board processing 172

8.2.4 Species and products processed at sea 173

8.3 Advantages of on-board processing 174

8.4 Quality issues related to on-board processing 175

8.4.1 Introduction to quality issues for fisheries products 175

8.4.2 Receiving and handling raw materials 176

8.4.3 Quality issues during processing 187

8.4.4 Quality issues during storage and transport 202

8.5 Sustainable issues 203

Acknowledgements 203

References 204

9 Fishmeal Production and Sustainability 207
George M. Hall

9.1 Introduction 207

9.1.1 Fishmeal production 207

9.1.2 Conversion efficiency of fishmeal and fish oil 210

9.1.3 Nutritional value of fishmeal and fish oil 212

9.2 The fishmeal process 215

9.2.1 Raw material unloading 216

9.2.2 The cooker 217

9.2.3 The press 218

9.2.4 The decanter 218

9.2.5 Separators and purifiers 219

9.2.6 Evaporators 219

9.2.7 The drier 220

9.2.8 Post-production operations 220

9.2.9 Conclusions 221

9.3 Sustainability issues 221

9.3.1 Energy 222

9.3.2 Water 222

9.3.3 Effluents 222

9.3.4 By-products 223

9.3.5 Cleaner production 223

9.3.6 Life cycle assessment of the fishmeal and fish oil process 224

9.4 Alternatives to fishmeal 226

9.4.1 Fish silage 227

9.4.2 Fish protein hydrolysates 229

9.4.3 Plant-based alternatives to fishmeal 231

9.5 Conclusions 232

References 233

10 Utilization of Fish Processing By-products for Bioactive Compounds 236
K. Shirai and J. C. Ramirez-Ramirez

10.1 Introduction 236

10.2 Raw material chemical composition 236

10.3 Protein hydrolysates and peptides 237

10.3.1 General aspects and production 237

10.3.2 FPH composition and use as food ingredient 240

10.3.3 FPH and peptide applications 240

10.3.4 Therapeutic and health-promoting properties 243

10.4 Collagen and gelatin 244

10.4.1 Extraction conditions of fish collagens and gelatins 246

10.4.2 Functional properties 248

10.4.3 Therapeutic properties 249

10.5 Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in fish 250

10.5.1 Composition 250

10.5.2 Extraction 255

10.5.3 Therapeutic properties 256

10.6 Concluding remarks 258

Acknowledgements 258

References 258

11 Life Cycle Assessment of Bulk Packaging Used to Transport Fresh Fish Products: Case Study 266
K. S. Williams

11.1 Introduction 266

11.1.1 Background to UK waste and sustainability 267

11.2 UK fishing industry 268

11.2.1 Transportation of fish products 269

11.2.2 Packaging of fish 270

11.2.3 Types of packaging 271

11.3 Life cycle assessment 275

11.3.1 Methodology 275

11.4 Case study: Rainbow Seafood – EPS and PP fish boxes 276

11.4.1 Company profile 276

11.4.2 Context of the study 277

11.4.3 Methodology 278

11.5 System design 278

11.6 Data acquisition 280

11.7 Life cycle inventory 280

11.8 Life cycle impact assessment 281

11.9 Results and recommendations 282

11.10 Conclusions 282

Acknowledgement 285

References 285

Index 289

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
George M. Hall University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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