The book starts with ecotoxicological aspects of PAHs, considering their initial formation, then their fate and effects in most environmental compartments. The second part considers the general characteristics of these compounds, beginning with sources and transport in the environment. PAHs are degraded by sunlight and by microorganisms. Metabolism in higher biota may be less important for the overall fate of PAHs, but it is crucial in terms of the formation of carcinogenic metabolites.
In the third part, some fundamental aspects of partitioning and bioavailability are discussed, then PAH uptake and effects are considered for invertebrates, fish, birds, mammals and amphibia in freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments. PAH impairment of plant growth and development is also covered. Alteration through photo–activation, often overlooked, is included here. The chapter on biomarkers focuses on aquatic organisms.
The final part addresses the issues involved with integrating our knowledge of PAHs for a specific purpose. It ranges from various approaches to developing sediment quality guidelines to a practical example of managing risk from PAHs, highlighting the problems and solutions in a case study.
This book will be of interest to industrial and academic research scientists in ecotoxicology, environmental studies/management, toxicology and chemistry; environmental agencies and consultants, NGOs involved in risk assessment.
Part I: Introduction and Rationale.
Introduction (P. Douben).
Part II: General Characteristics of PAHs.
The Sources, Transport, and Fate of PAHs in the Marine Environment (J. Latimer and J. Zheng).
Geochemistry of PAHs in Aquatic Environments: Source, Persistence and Distribution (R. Burgess, et al.).
Photochemical Reactions of PAHs in the Atmosphere (J. Arey and R. Atkinson).
Metabolic Activation of PAHs: Role of DNA Adduct Formation in Induced Carcinogenesis (F. Akcha, et al.).
Biodegradation and General Aspects of Bioavailability (F. Volkering and A. Breure).
Part III Bioavailability, Exposure and Effects in Environmental Compartments.
An Overview of the Partitioning and Bioavailability of PAHs in Sediments and Soils (R. Burgess, et al.).
Bioavailability, Uptake and Effects of PAHs in Aquatic Invertebrates in Field Studies (P. den Besten, et al.).
Bioaccumulation of PAHs in Marine Invertebrates (J. Meador).
Uptake and Accumulation of PAHs by Terrestrial Invertebrates (R. Achazi and C. Van Gestel).
Ecotoxicological Studies Focusing on Marine and Freshwater Fish (J. Payne, et al.).
Effects of PAHs on Terrestrial and Freshwater Birds, Mammals and Amphibians (H. Malcolm & R. Shore).
Effects of PAHs on Marine Birds, Mammals and Reptiles (P. Albers and T. Loughlin).
PAH Interactions with Plants: Uptake, Toxicity and Phytoremediation (B. Greenberg).
Assessing Risks from Photoactivated Toxicity of PAHs to Aquatic Organisms (G. Ankley, et al.).
Biomarkers and PAHs — Prospects for the Assessment of Exposure and Effects in Aquatic Systems (R. Altenburger, et al.).
Part IV Integration of Information on PAHs.
Approaches to Developing Sediment Quality Guidelines for PAHs (D. Mount, et al.).
Managing Risks from PAHs (G. Whale, et al.).