With contributions mainly coming from industry based experts, Chemistry & Technology of Flavours and Fragrances provides a detailed overview of the synthesis, chemistry and application technology of the major classes aroma compounds. With separate chapters covering important technical aspects such as the stability of aroma compounds, structure odour relationships and identification of aroma compounds, this book will be essential reading for both experienced and graduate level entrants to the flavour & fragrance industry. It will also serve as an important introduction to the subject for chemists and technologists in those industries that use flavours and fragrances, eg food, cosmetics & toiletries, and household products.
David J Rowe.
The Classical World.
The Mediaeval World.
From the Renaissance to the Enlightment.
The Industrial Age.
The Post–War World.
The Structure of the Flavour and Fragrance Industry.
A Note on Regulations.
A Note on Quality.
IDENTIFICATION OF AROMA CHEMICALS.
Neil C. Da Costa and Sanja Eri.
Isolation of Aroma Chemicals.
Extraction of liquid samples.
Extraction of solid samples.
Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE).
Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE).
Fractionation of solvent extracts.
Concentration of solvent extracts.
Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE).
Steam Distillation Methods.
Direct Thermal Desorption (DTD).
Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME).
Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) (commercially available as TwisterTM).
Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry (GC–O).
Techniques for identification of aroma compounds.
A Case Study: Generessenceâ.
FLAVOUR GENERATION IN FOOD.
Liam O Hare and John Grigor.
Taste and Aroma.
Lipid Oxidation and Degradation.
Fatty Aldehydes as flavour compounds.
Fatty Aldehydes (pentanal and hexanal) as flavour precursors.
Other lipid derived flavour precursors.
Fatty Aldehydes as "Flavour Moderators".
The Maillard Reaction.
Influence of Method of Cooking.
Roasting Frying and Grilling.
Thiophenes and Furans.
Lactose and citrate fermentation.
Metabolism of free amino acids.
Cysteine and Methionine.
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine.
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine.
Methyl Ketones and Secondary Alcohols.
AROMA CHEMICALS I: C,H,O COMPOUNDS.
David J. Rowe.
Saturated Alkyl alcohols.
Unsaturated alkyl alcohols.
Complex Fragrance Alcohols.
Aromatic and aralkyl alcohols.
Saturated aliphatic acids.
Lactones gamma and delta.
Synthesis of esters.
Carotenoids ; Ionones, Irones, Damascones and related compounds.
AROMA CHEMICALS II HETEROCYCLES.
Introduction to Heterocyclic Compounds.
Terminology of Heterocycles.
Non–aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds.
Oxygen Containing Heterocyclic Aroma Chemicals.
Furans and Hydrofurans.
Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Nitrogen and/or Sulphur.
Pyrrole and Indole Derivatives.
Pyridine and Quinoline Derivatives.
Pyrazine and Quinoxaline Derivatives.
The Formation of Heterocyclic Compounds in Food.
References and Notes.
AROMA CHEMICALS III: SULPHUR COMPOUNDS.
Simon B. Jameson.
Thiols and Thioesters.
Acyclic Sulphides and Polysulphides.
Saturated Heterocyclic Sulphur Compounds.
Quality and Stability.
AROMA CHEMICALS IV: MUSKS.
Pcm Polycyclic Aromatic Musks.
Evolution Of The Industrial Synthesis Of Macrocycles.
Modern Macrocyclic Musks.
New Musk Structures.
AROMA CHEMICALS V: NATURAL AROMA CHEMICALS.
The natural concept.
Isolation from natural sources such as essential oils.
Total Flavour Enhancement.
Individual Flavour Chemicals.
Terpenoid and related Compounds.
MOLECULES OF TASTE AND SENSATION.
Mark L. Dewis,.
The Trigeminal Nerve System, Taste and Oral Receptors.
The Trigeminal Nerve.
Sensates ; Compounds which provide a sensory effect.
Pungent, warming and hot irritants.
Closing comments on Compounds which provide a sensory effect.
Taste active compounds.
Salt and enhancers.
Umami the fifth taste quality .
STABILITY OF AROMA CHEMICALS.
Case Study 1: Citral And Vanillin Stability In Milk–Based Products.
Case Study 2: Stability Of Thiols In An Aqueous Process Flavouring.
Stability And Fragrance Applications.
RATIONAL ODORANT DESIGN.
Theories of olfaction.
The nature of the receptors.
No predictive ability.
Isosteric molecules smell different.
"Strong" shape looks unlikely.
"Weak" shape appears untestable.
The chiral receptor problem.
No odorant antagonists have been found.
We smell functional groups.
Functional group recognition.
isosteric molecules accounted for.
Isotopes smell different (maybe).
Enantiomers accounted for (differently).
The Chiral Limit.
Mechanism novel and unproven.
Inability to account for odorant intensity.
Rational design by shape.
Rational design by vibration.
2 Prospects for the future.
APPLICATIONS I: FLAVOURS.
David Baines & Jack Knights.
The Early Days of Flavour Analysis.
The Role of the Flavourist.
Water Soluble Liquid Flavourings.
Solvents for Special Uses.
Oil Soluble Liquid Flavourings.
Emulsion Liquid Flavourings.
Properties of plated flavours and spices.
Carriers and Encapsulating Agents.
Method of production.
Properties of coacervated flavourings.
Method of production.
Properties of melt extruded flavourings.
Formulation Issues for the Flavourist.
Influence of Foodstuff to be Flavoured.
Influence of Legislation.
Influence of Customer Requirements.
APPLICATIONS II: FRAGRANCE.
Stephen J. Herman.
The basic structure of fragrances.
The simplest case: Hydroalcoholics.
Personal care applications: emulsions.
Personal care applications: surfactants.
Reactive hair care.
Dyes and Perms.
David J Rowe