China, India, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Ghana, South Africa, Israel, and Poland are all covered in this book, as well as comparative studies of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Russia, and a long list of emerging economies. These represent both different regions of the world and markets at varying stages of economic and financial development. The editors present an institutional, empirical and theoretical evaluation of different housing finance systems, presenting a collection of studies that describe various aspects of selected mortgage markets around the world.
Questions relating to housing finance efficiency and contract heterogeneity are examined and the securitization experiences in these countries are analysed, offering valuable lessons on how mortgage markets are integrated with capital markets and how particular institutional frameworks interact with mortgage markets.
Short reviews on each mortgage market are given covering institutional aspects of the markets, such as the size and structure of the market (including flows and accumulation of funds); a description of the competition and a presentation of the major competitors (including market share and major financial measures); profitability in the market, with trends and structural changes; the major mortgage instruments and their market share; special tax issues; the role of the government in the market; defaults, prepayments and mortgage insurance; and major regulatory issues.
Through this thorough analysis, the major existing problems in the mortgage market of each country are explored, highlighting the current steps adopted to solve these problems, propositions for dealing with the major issues in the future and the implied developments in the market.
Researchers in real estate and housing economics throughout the world - as well as city analysts - will gain through Mortgage Markets Worldwide a better understanding of this rich and complex market.
1 The Emerging Mortgage Markets in China .
Yongheng Deng and Peng Fei.
The evolution of the mortgage markets in China.
An early assessment of China’s residential mortgage loans performance.
2 Mortgage Market in India .
Piyush Tiwari and Pradeep Debata.
Demographic trends and housing stock.
Formal mortgage market.
Securitization of housing loans.
Role of government and recent regulatory reforms.
Finance to builders.
Issues in housing finance: reform agenda.
3 Transforming Housing Finance in Japan in the 21st Century .
Overview of the Japanese economy, housing markets, the housing finance markets and systems in Japan.
Restructuring the public housing loan corporation: causes and possible consequences.
Some recent movements in the Japanese housing finance markets and systems: securitization of real estate in Japan.
4 Mortgage Market in Singapore .
Seow Eng Ong.
Housing finance in Singapore.
ARM prepayment for private housing.
ARM prepayment for public housing.
The Central Provident Fund.
ARM delinquency and default within the CPF context.
Innovations in mortgage products.
5 The Israeli Mortgage Market: Mortgage Insurance as a Mechanism for Screening Default Risk .
Danny Ben-Shahar, Gilat Benchetrit and Eyal Sulganik.
Brief review of the Israeli economy and mortgage market.
Modelling mortgage insurance as a screening mechanism.
6 Housing Finance and Mortgage Markets in The Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia .
A.R. Ghanbari Parsa and Mohammad Ali Mulazadeh.
Housing mortgage in a socialist economy.
The Czech Republic.
Housing finance system in Hungary.
Loan guarantee measures.
Affordability of mortgage loans.
Evolution of housing mortgage loans.
The demand for housing and mortgage credit.
Short history of mortgage banking.
Increasing individual housing loans.
Public mortgage bonds.
Mortgage loan system in Slovenia.
Housing market in Slovenia.
Residential loan offered by banking sector.
Obstacles of the mortgage loan market in Slovenia.
Summary and conclusion.
7 The Mortgage Lending Market in Poland.
Ewa Kucharska-Stasiak and Magdalena Zaleczna.
Determinants underlying expansion of the mortgage loan market.
The mortgage loan market – a retrospective analysis.
Current situation on the mortgage loan market.
The loan insurance system.
Future of the mortgage loan market.
8 Secondary Mortgage Markets in South Africa .
Julia Freybote and Viola Karoly.
Economic and property market fundamentals.
Primary mortgage markets.
Secondary mortgage markets.
Conclusion and outlook.
9 The Mortgage Market in Ghana .
Contractual agreements in the housing market.
Land and property in the development of capital.
The housing challenge.
State housing policy initiatives.
Formal mortgage in Ghana.
Features of the mortgage market.
The legal framework.
The Home Finance Company (HFC).
10 Housing Finance in Emerging Economies: Applying a Benchmark from Developed Countries .
Ashok Bardhan and Robert H. Edelstein.
Housing finance and the economy.
Russia, India and China: defining similarities and contrasts.
11 Mortgage Finance in Emerging Markets: Constraints and Feasible Development Paths .
Bertrand M. Renaud.
Recurring issues in developing mortgage markets.
Types of mortgage systems observed in developing countries.
Lessons learned and some strategic priorities.
Notes to appendices.
Charles Leung City University of Hong Kong.
Seow-Eng Ong Department of Real Estate, National University of Singapore.